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RESEARCH PAPERS

Dynamic Modeling and Experimental Testing of a Piano Action Mechanism

[+] Author and Article Information
Martin Hirschkorn, John McPhee, Stephen Birkett

Systems Design Engineering, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1

J. Comput. Nonlinear Dynam 1(1), 47-55 (May 11, 2005) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1951782 History: Received March 10, 2005; Revised May 11, 2005

A model for a grand piano action is proposed in this paper. The multibody dynamic model treats each of the five main action components (key, whippen, jack, repetition lever, and hammer) as a rigid body, and incorporates a contact model to determine the normal and friction forces at 13 locations between each of the contacting bodies. All parameters in the model are directly measured from experiments on individual action components, allowing the model to be used as a prototyping tool for actions that have not yet been designed or built. The behavior of the model was compared to the behavior of an experimental grand piano action and found to be very accurate for high force blows, and reasonably accurate for low force blows.

Copyright © 2006 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Topics: Force , Hammers , Friction
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Schematic of a piano action

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Figure 2

Five bodies of the full piano action

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Figure 3

Contact locations of a piano action

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Figure 4

Loading, unloading, and fit curve contact forces

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Figure 5

Piecewise and smoothed friction curves

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Figure 6

Key points for regulation of the piano action

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Figure 7

Measured force profiles by an amateur pianist

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Figure 8

Measured force for five trials with forte blow

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Figure 9

Rotation of key for five trials with forte blow

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Figure 10

Rotation of hammer for five trials with forte blow

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Figure 11

Experimental and model rotation of key for forte blow

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Figure 12

Experimental and model rotation of hammer for forte blow

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Figure 13

Force profile for piano blow

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Figure 14

Experimental and model rotation of hammer for piano blow

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Figure 15

Experimental and model rotation of key for piano blow

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