This paper concerns the problem of stabilization of uncertain fractional-order chaotic systems in finite time. On the basis of fractional Lyapunov stability theory, a robust finite-time fractional controller is introduced to control chaos of fractional-order chaotic systems in the presence of system uncertainties. The finite-time stability of the closed-loop system is analytically proved. An estimation of the convergence time is also given. Some numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the usefulness and applicability of the proposed robust finite-time control approach. It is worth noting that the proposed fractional control method is applicable for stabilizing a broad range of uncertain fractional-order nonlinear systems in a given finite time.