This paper presents a model of the catenary and pantograph and an analysis of their dynamic interaction, using the finite element method. An analytical procedure to calculate the length of droppers is introduced. The calculated dropper length is applied to the catenary model and the static deformation due to gravity is simulated. The presag result of the contact wire is validated by comparison with the design specification. The wave propagation speed of the catenary model is acquired by applying the impact force to the contact wire. The result, regarding the wave propagation speed, agrees well with the reference speed as defined by the UIC code. On the contrary, the pantograph model is unified with the finite element catenary model, and the dynamic interaction of the catenary-pantograph is simulated. An optimization technique to find the material properties of the pantograph model is proposed. Based on the following performance test data, the optimum values of the material properties are found by using the response surface analysis method. The reliability of the pantograph-catenary model is verified by comparing the contact force results obtained from the simulation and test. When the pantograph drives at 305 km/h, 370 km/h, and 430 km/h, the contact force variation and the possibility of loss of contact are discussed.