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Research Papers

Operational Space Formulation and Analysis for Rovers

[+] Author and Article Information
Martin Hirschkorn

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Centre for Intelligent Machines,
McGill University,
817 Sherbrooke Street West,
Montreal, Quebec H3A 2K6, Canada
e-mail: martin.hirschkorn@mail.mcgill.ca

József Kövecses

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Centre for Intelligent Machines,
McGill University,
817 Sherbrooke Street West,
Montreal, Quebec H3A 2K6, Canada
e-mail: jozsef.kovecses@mcgill.ca

Contributed by the Design Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Computational and Nonlinear Dynamics. Manuscript received May 25, 2013; final manuscript received October 15, 2013; published online July 11, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Javier Cuadrado.

J. Comput. Nonlinear Dynam 9(4), 041005 (Jul 11, 2014) (13 pages) Paper No: CND-13-1110; doi: 10.1115/1.4025743 History: Received May 25, 2013; Revised October 15, 2013

Many techniques have been developed for analyzing and evaluating mechanical systems for the purpose of improving design and control, such as the operational space formulation. It has been been shown to be a useful tool when working with robotic manipulators, but has not been extended to consider rovers. Rovers are fundamentally different due to the wheel-ground contact, that does not exist for fixed-base systems. In this paper, several different aspects of the operations space formulation, inertial properties, control, multi-arm systems, redundancy, and unactuated coordinates are investigated in the context of rovers. By considering a different interpretation of the operational space of a rover, several sets of generalized coordinates were chosen to represent the movement of two example rovers. Simulations were performed to demonstrate how these choices of generalized coordinates can be used to analyze various characteristics of the rovers and can improve the behavior for certain maneuvers, such as wheel walking.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Topics: Wheels
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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Traditional control structure from Ref. [12]

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Fig. 2

Operational space control structure, from Ref. [12]

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Fig. 3

Two-dimensional reconfigurable rover

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Fig. 4

Canadian Breadboard Rover (photo courtesy of the Canadian Space Agency)

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Fig. 5

Joint space velocities of a simple reconfigurable rover

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Fig. 6

Operational space representation of a simple reconfigurable rover

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Fig. 7

Alternative operational space formulation of a simple reconfigurable rover

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Fig. 8

Two-dimensional model of the CBR chassis

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Fig. 9

Modes of movement in the x· direction: (a) joint space, and (b) operational space

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Fig. 10

Two different configurations of the simple reconfigurable rover: (a) neutral stance and (b) wide stance

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Fig. 11

Performance of the rover with wheel walking

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Fig. 12

Rotational velocities of the rover leg joints while wheel walking

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Fig. 13

Velocity difference between the wheel centers x·W of the simple reconfigurable rover while wheel walking

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Fig. 14

Performance of the simple reconfigurable rover with and without operational space control of wheel walking

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Fig. 15

Rotational velocities of the leg joints of the CBR θ·LF, θ·LM, and θ·LR when wheel walking

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Fig. 16

Relative wheel center velocities of the CBR x·FR and x·MR while wheel walking

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Fig. 17

Performance of the CBR with operational space control of wheel walking

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