0
Research Papers

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Mechanism of Blast Wave Transmission Through a Surrogate Head

[+] Author and Article Information
Yi Hua, Praveen Kumar Akula, Jeff Berg, Carl A. Nelson

Department of Mechanical
and Materials Engineering,
University of Nebraska-Lincoln,
Lincoln, NE 68588-0656

Linxia Gu

Department of Mechanical
and Materials Engineering,
University of Nebraska-Lincoln,
Lincoln, NE 68588-0656
Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience,
Lincoln, NE 68588-0656
e-mail: lgu@unl.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Design Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF COMPUTATIONAL AND NONLINEAR DYNAMICS. Manuscript received July 17, 2013; final manuscript received November 27, 2013; published online February 13, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Carmen M. Lilley.

J. Comput. Nonlinear Dynam 9(3), 031010 (Feb 13, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: CND-13-1183; doi: 10.1115/1.4026156 History: Received July 17, 2013; Revised November 27, 2013

This work is to develop an experiment-validated numerical model to elucidate the wave transmission mechanisms through a surrogate head under blast loading. Repeated shock tube tests were conducted on a surrogate head, i.e., water-filled polycarbonate shell. Surface strain on the skull simulant and pressure inside the brain simulant were recorded at multiple locations. A numerical model was developed to capture the shock wave propagation within the shock tube and the fluid-structure interaction between the shock wave and the surrogate head. The obtained numerical results were compared with the experimental measurements. The experiment-validated numerical model was then used to further understand the wave transmission mechanisms from the blast to the surrogate head, including the flow field around the head, structural response of the skull simulant, and pressure distributions inside the brain simulant. Results demonstrated that intracranial pressure in the anterior part of the brain simulant was dominated by the direct blast wave propagation, while in the posterior part it was attributed to both direct blast wave propagation and skull flexure, which took effect at a later time. This study served as an exploration of the physics of blast-surrogate interaction and a precursor to a realistic head model.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Warden, D., 2006, “Military TBI During the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars,” J. Head Trauma Rehab., 21(5), pp. 398–402. [CrossRef]
Ender, M. G., 2010, “Invisible Wounds of War: Psychological and Cognitive Injuries, Their Consequences, and Services to Assist Recovery,” Contemp. Sociol., 39(4), pp. 399–402. [CrossRef]
Marshall, K. R., Holland, S. L., Meyer, K. S., Martin, E. M., Wilmore, M., and Grimes, J. B., Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment,” Mil. Med., 177(8 Suppl), pp. 67–75. [PubMed]
Long, J. B., Bentley, T. L., Wessner, K. A., Cerone, C., Sweeney, S., and Bauman, R. A., 2009, “Blast Overpressure in Rats: Recreating a Battlefield Injury in the Laboratory,” J. Neurotraum., 26(6), pp. 827–840. [CrossRef]
Cheng, J. M., Gu, J. W., Ma, Y. A., Yang, T., Kuang, Y. Q., Li, B. C. and Kang, J. Y., 2010, “Development of a Rat Model for Studying Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury,” J. Neurol. Sci., 294(1–2), pp. 23–28. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Risling, M., Plantman, S., Angeria, M., Rostami, E., Bellander, B. M., Kirkegaard, M., Arborelius, U., and Davidsson, J., 2011, “Mechanisms of Blast Induced Brain Injuries, Experimental Studies in Rats,” Neuroimage, 54, pp. S89–S97. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Saljo, A., Mayorga, M., Bolouri, H., Svensson, B., and Hamberger, A., 2011, “Mechanisms and Pathophysiology of the Low-Level Blast Brain Injury in Animal Models,” Neuroimage, 54, pp. S83–S88. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Bolander, R., Mathie, B., Bir, C., Ritzel, D., and Vandevord, P., 2011, “Skull Flexure as a Contributing Factor in the Mechanism of Injury in the Rat When Exposed to a Shock Wave,” Ann. Biomed. Eng., 39(10), pp. 2550–2559. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Sundaramurthy, A., Alai, A., Ganpule, S., Holmberg, A., Plougonven, E., and Chandra, N., 2012, “Blast-Induced Biomechanical Loading of the Rat: An Experimental and Anatomically Accurate Computational Blast Injury Model,” J. Neurotram., 29(13), pp. 2352–2364. [CrossRef]
Alley, M. D., Schimizze, B. R., and Son, S. F., 2011, “Experimental Modeling of Explosive Blast-Related Traumatic Brain Injuries,” Neuroimage, 54, pp. S45–S54. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Ganpule, S., Alai, A., Plougonven, E., and Chandra, N., 2012, “Mechanics of Blast Loading on the Head Models in the Study of Traumatic Brain Injury Using Experimental and Computational Approaches,” Biomech. Model. Mech., 12(3), pp. 511–531. [CrossRef]
Zhu, F., Wagner, C., Dal Cengio Leonardi, A., Jin, X., VandeVord, P., Chou, C., Yang, K.H., and King, A. I., 2012, “Using a Gel/Plastic Surrogate to Study the Biomechanical Response of the Head Under Air Shock Loading: a Combined Experimental and Numerical Investigation,” Biomech. Model Mech., 11(3), pp. 341–353. [CrossRef]
Liu, M. B., Liu, G. R., and Lam, K. Y., 2002, “Investigations Into Water Mitigation Using a Meshless Particle Method,” Shock Waves, 12(3), pp. 181–195. [CrossRef]
Chen, Y., and Ostoja-Starzewski, M., 2010, “MRI-Based Finite Element Modeling of Head Trauma: Spherically Focusing Shear Waves,” Acta Mech., 213(1–2), pp. 155–167. [CrossRef]
Bauman, R. A., Ling, G., Tong, L., Januszkiewicz, A., Agoston, D., Delanerolle, N., Kim, Y., Ritzel, D., Bell, R., and Ecklund, J., 2009, “An Introductory Characterization of a Combat-Casualty-Care Relevant Swine Model of Closed Head Injury Resulting From Exposure to Explosive Blast,” J. Neurotram., 26(6), pp. 841–860. [CrossRef]
Chavko, M., Koller, W. A., Prusaczyk, W. K., and McCarron, R. M., 2007, “Measurement of Blast Wave by a Miniature Fiber Optic Pressure Transducer in the Rat Brain,” J. Neurosci. Meth., 159(2), pp. 277–281. [CrossRef]
Chavko, M., Watanabe, T., Adeeb, S., Lankasky, J., Ahlers, S. T., and McCarron, R. M., 2011, “Relationship Between Orientation to a Blast and Pressure Wave Propagation Inside the Rat Brain,” J. Neurosci. Meth., 195(1), pp. 61–66. [CrossRef]
Nyein, M. K., Jason, A. M., Yu, L., Pita, C. M., Joannopoulos, J. D., Moore, D. F., and Radovitzky, R. A., 2010, “In Silico Investigation of Intracranial Blast Mitigation With Relevance to Military Traumatic Brain Injury,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 107(48), pp. 20703–20708. [CrossRef]
Bhattacharjee, Y., 2008, “Neuroscience—Shell Shock Revisited: Solving the Puzzle of Blast Trauma,” Science, 319(5862), pp. 406–408. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Courtney, A. C., and Courtney, M. W., 2009, “A Thoracic Mechanism of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury due to Blast Pressure Waves,” Med. Hypotheses, 72(1), pp. 76–83. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Moss, W. C., King, M. J., and Blackman, E. G., 2009, “Skull Flexure From Blast Waves: A Mechanism for Brain Injury With Implications for Helmet Design,” Phys. Rev. Lett., 103(10), pp. 1–4. [CrossRef]
Finkel, M. F., 2006, “The Neurological Consequences of Explosives,” J. Neurol. Sci., 249(1), pp. 63–67. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Krave, U., Hojer, S., and Hansson, H. A., 2005, “Transient, Powerful Pressures Are Generated in the Brain by a Rotational Acceleration Impulse to the Head,” Eur. J. Neurosci., 21(10), pp. 2876–2882. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Zhang, L., Yang, K. H., and King, A. I., 2004, “A Proposed Injury Threshold for Mild Traumatic Brain Injury,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 126(2), pp. 226–236. [CrossRef]
Nakagawa, A., Fujimura, M., Kato, K., Okuyama, H., Hashimoto, T., Takayama, K., and Tominaga, T., 2009, “Shock Wave-Induced Brain Injury in Rat: Novel Traumatic Brain Injury Animal Model,” Acta Neurochirurgica Suppl., 102, pp. 421–424. [CrossRef]
Goeller, J., Wardlaw, A., Treichler, D., O'Bruba, J., and Weiss, G., 2012, “Investigation of Cavitation as a Possible Damage Mechanism in Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury,” J. Neurotram., 29(10), pp. 1970–1981. [CrossRef]
Anderson, J. D., 2001, Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Ganpule, S., Gu, L., Alai, A., and Chandra, N., 2012, “Role of Helmet in the Mechanics of Shock Wave Propagation Under Blast Loading Conditions,” Comput. Meth. Biomech. Biomed. Eng., 15(11), pp. 1233–1244. [CrossRef]
Lubock, P., and Goldsmith, W., 1980, “Experimental Cavitation Studies in a Model Head-Neck System,” J. Biomech., 13(12), pp. 1041–1052. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Marklund, N., Clausen, F., Lewen, A., Hovda, D. A., Olsson, Y., and Hillered, L., 2001, “Alpha-phenyl-tert-N-butyl nitrone (PBN) Improves Functional and Morphological Outcome After Cortical Contusion Injury in the Rat,” Acta Neurochir., 143(1), pp. 73–81. [CrossRef]
Nakagawa, A., Fujimura, M., Kato, K., Okuyama, H., Hashimoto, T., Takayama, K., and Tominaga, T., 2009, “Shock Wave-Induced Brain Injury in Rat: Novel Traumatic Brain Injury Animal Model,” Acta Neurochirurgica Suppl., 102, pp. 421–424. [CrossRef]
Mao, H. J., Zhang, L. Y., Jiang, B. H., Genthikatti, V. V., Jin, X., Zhu, F., Makwana, R., Gill, A., Jandir, G., Singh, A., and Yang, K. H., 2013, “Development of a Finite Element Human Head Model Partially Validated With Thirty Five Experimental Cases,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 135(11), p. 111002. [CrossRef]
Willinger, R., Kang, H.-S., and Diaw, B., 1999, “Three-Dimensional Human Head Finite-Element Model Validation Against Two Experimental Impacts,” Ann. Biomed. Eng., 27(3), pp. 403–410. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Taylor, P. A., and Ford, C. C., 2009, “Simulation of Blast-Induced Early-Time Intracranial Wave Physics Leading to Traumatic Brain Injury,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 131(6), p. 061007. [CrossRef]
Kleinschmit, N. N., 2011, “A Shock Tube Technique for Blast Wave Simulation and Studies of Flow Structure Interactions in Shock tube Blast Experiments,” Master thesis, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

A 711 mm (28 in.) square shock tube apparatus

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Locations of (a) pressure sensors in the water and (b) strain gauges on the surface of the polycarbonate shell

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Experimentally measured Friedlander-type incident pressure history

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Finite element model of surrogate head subjected to blast loading (cut view in transverse plane)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Experiment and numerical comparison of pressure histories in the brain simulant, i.e., water, at locations: (a) P1, (b) P2, and (c) P3

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Experiment and numerical comparison of surface strains on the skull simulant, i.e., the polycarbonate shell, at locations: (a) S1, (b) S2, (c) S3, (d) S4, and (e) S5

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Reflected pressure histories measured at five locations around the surrogate head

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Spatial and temporal vector plots of the displacement in the transverse plane of the skull simulant (deformation scale factor of 50)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Typical pressure contour inside the brain simulant at t = 0.625 ms (unit: MPa)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Pressure histories along the centerline of the brain simulant (cut view in transverse plane)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Pressure distribution in the vicinity of the surrogate head: (a) flow separation at t = 0.88 ms, and (b) flow reattachment at t = 1.05 ms

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Blast overpressure, surface strain, and intracranial pressure at five marked locations (a) M1, (b) M2, (c) M3, (d) M4, and (e) M5

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In