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Research Papers

A Numerical Model to Study the Effects of Aluminum Foam Filler on the Dynamic Behavior of a Steel Tubular Energy Absorber Using a Multi-Node Displacement Evaluation Procedure

[+] Author and Article Information
Vinícius Veloso

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Minas Gerais,
Av. Dom Jose Gaspar,
500 Coração Eucarístico,
Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais 30535-901, Brazil
e-mail: vinivel@live.com

Pedro Américo Almeida Magalhães

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Minas Gerais,
Av. Dom Jose Gaspar,
500 Coração Eucarístico,
Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais 30535-901, Brazil
e-mail: paamj@oi.com.br

Janes Landre

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Pontificia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais,
Av. Dom José Gaspar,
500 Coração Eucarístico,
Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais 30535-901 Brazil
e-mail: janes@pucminas.br

Contributed by the Design Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF COMPUTATIONAL AND NONLINEAR DYNAMICS. Manuscript received September 26, 2013; final manuscript received December 5, 2013; published online March 13, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Ahmet S. Yigit.

J. Comput. Nonlinear Dynam 9(3), 031020 (Mar 13, 2014) (14 pages) Paper No: CND-13-1230; doi: 10.1115/1.4026235 History: Received September 26, 2013; Revised December 05, 2013

Tubular energy absorbers are usually found in the structures of cars, trains, and other means of transportation. They can absorb high levels of impact energy by plastic deformation during axial folding. The key advantages of this type of energy absorber are the compact dimensions, simple manufacturing, and good energy absorption efficiency. The dynamic behavior of the tube during collapse has a great influence on the total energy absorbed and, consequently, the force transmitted during folding. The optimization of this process may lead to improved energy absorption efficiency, allowing us to reduce the dimensions and costs of the component or improve the crashworthiness of pre-existing structures. Foam materials are used in most applications to improve the impact absorption of structures due to its constant load pattern during crushing. They are used, in most cases, as fillers inside empty absorbers such as tubes. In this paper, a numerical model was developed in order to study the possible interactions of foam and tube walls, providing information onhow this relation can influence the deformation modes of the tube. The obtained results showed a direct influence of the foam interaction with the tube walls under the energy absorption and load transmitting characteristics of the component.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Axially crushed square tubes crushing modes: (a) compact section, and (b) non compact section [3]

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Fig. 2

Energy absorber dimensions

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Fig. 3

Base and impact body configuration

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Fig. 4

Numerical and experimental stress versus the strain curves of the DP600 steel constitutive model at different strain rates [11]

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Fig. 5

Deshpande–Fleck model and the experimental stress versus the strain curves comparison of Alporas aluminum foam [16]

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Fig. 6

Reference nodes on tube walls

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Fig. 7

Energy balance of models

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Fig. 8

Total energy/initial energy ratio

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Fig. 9

Absorbed energy during impact

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Fig. 10

Force transmitted to base during impact

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Fig. 11

Tube section view showing foam filled and nonfilled tubes at final crushing

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Fig. 12

Experimental foam filled tubular absorbers at final crushing [17,19]

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Fig. 13

Nonfilled and foam filled tubes buckling modes compared

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Fig. 14

Nodal displacement curves: nodes 1 to 4

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Fig. 15

Nodal displacement curves: nodes 5 to 8

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Fig. 16

Nodal displacement curves: nodes 9 to 12

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Fig. 17

Maximum principal stress measured at 20 mm in the Z axis impact body displacement

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Fig. 18

Measured displacements in the X and Y directions in the foam block for an impact body displacement of 20mm (Z axis)

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Fig. 19

Maximum principal stress measured at 40 mm in the Z axis impact body displacement

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Fig. 20

Measured displacements in the X and Y directions in the foam block for an impact body displacement of 40 mm (Z axis)

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Fig. 21

Maximum principal stress measured at 65 mm in the Z axis impact body displacement

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Fig. 22

Measured displacements in the X and Y directions in the foam block for an impact body displacement of 65 mm (Z axis)

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Fig. 23

Maximum principal stress measured at 90 mm in the Z axis impact body displacement

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Fig. 24

Measured displacements in the X and Y directions in the foam block for an impact body displacement of 90 mm (Z axis)

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Fig. 25

Measured displacements in the nodes on the tube walls, measured in the normal to surface direction

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