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Research Papers

A Physics-Based Musculoskeletal Driver Model to Study Steering Tasks

[+] Author and Article Information
Naser Mehrabi

Systems Design Engineering,
University of Waterloo,
Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
e-mail: nmehrabi@uwaterloo.ca

Reza Sharif Razavian

Systems Design Engineering,
University of Waterloo,
Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
e-mail: rsharifr@uwaterloo.ca

John McPhee

Professor
Fellow ASME
Department of Systems Design Engineering,
University of Waterloo,
Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
e-mail: mcphee@uwaterloo.ca

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received November 26, 2013; final manuscript received March 28, 2014; published online January 12, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Parviz Nikravesh.

J. Comput. Nonlinear Dynam 10(2), 021012 (Mar 01, 2015) (8 pages) Paper No: CND-13-1300; doi: 10.1115/1.4027333 History: Received November 26, 2013; Revised March 28, 2014; Online January 12, 2015

Realistic driver models can play an important role in developing new driver assistance technologies. A realistic driver model can reduce the time-consuming trial-and-error process of designing and testing products, and thereby reduce the vehicle's development time and cost. A realistic model should provide both driver path planning and arm motions that are physiologically possible. The interaction forces between a driver's hand and steering wheel can influence control performance and steering feel. The aim of this work is to develop a comprehensive yet practical model of the driver and vehicle. Consequently, a neuromuscular driver model in conjunction with a high-fidelity vehicle model is developed to learn and understand more about the driver's performance and preferences, and their effect on vehicle control and stability. This driver model can provide insights into task performance and energy consumption of the driver, including fatigue and cocontraction dynamics of a steering task. In addition, this driver model in conjunction with a high-fidelity steering model can be used to develop new steering technologies such as electric power steering.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic view of the 3D arm

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Fig. 2

The muscle-actuated arm model with 14 muscles in MapleSim

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Fig. 3

Vehicle and driver model in MapleSim

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Fig. 4

Workflow of the driver/vehicle model

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Fig. 5

The PD controller realization of the stretch reflex in the arm model

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Fig. 6

(a) Vehicle lateral position, (b) steering wheel angle from path-following controller

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Fig. 7

3D arm joint angles

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Fig. 8

Joint torques (left) and wrist reaction forces (right) during the lane change maneuver; ((a) and (b)) with wrist reaction force minimization criterion; ((c) and (d)) with joint torque minimization criterion. The wrist reaction forces are shown in axial (Fx), radial (Fy), and tangential (Fz) directions of the steering wheel.

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Fig. 9

Optimal muscle forces for the elbow muscles

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Fig. 10

Optimal muscle forces for the muscles crossing shoulder joint

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Fig. 11

The effect of changing the steering wheel grip position on the optimal joint torques. (a) The steering wheel angle. (b) Corresponding joint torque for different grip positions

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