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Research Papers

Nonlinear Response of Wind Turbines Under Wind and Seismic Excitations With Soil–Structure Interaction

[+] Author and Article Information
Evangelos J. Sapountzakis

School of Civil Engineering,
National Technical University of Athens,
Zografou Campus,
Athens GR-157 80, Greece
e-mail: cvsapoun@central.ntua.gr

Ioannis C. Dikaros

School of Civil Engineering,
National Technical University of Athens,
Zografou Campus,
Athens GR-157 80, Greece
e-mail: dikarosgiannis@gmail.com

Andreas E. Kampitsis

School of Civil Engineering,
National Technical University of Athens,
Zografou Campus,
Athens GR-157 80, Greece
e-mail: cvakamb@gmail.com

Angeliki D. Koroneou

Technical Office “A. Koroneou,”
Promitheos 14, Voula,
Athens GR-166 73, Greece
e-mail: akoron@central.ntua.gr

Contributed by the Design Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF COMPUTATIONAL AND NONLINEAR DYNAMICS. Manuscript received November 29, 2013; final manuscript received May 14, 2014; published online April 2, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Carlo L. Bottasso.

J. Comput. Nonlinear Dynam 10(4), 041007 (Jul 01, 2015) (16 pages) Paper No: CND-13-1308; doi: 10.1115/1.4027697 History: Received November 29, 2013; Revised May 14, 2014; Online April 02, 2015

The objective of this paper is to present an efficient beam formulation based on the boundary element method (BEM), for the nonlinear dynamic analysis of wind turbine towers of variable cross section founded either on surface or on monopile foundation system. The whole structure may undergo moderately large displacements, taking into account the effect of soil–structure kinematic and inertia interaction. The tower is subjected to the combined action of arbitrarily distributed or concentrated transverse wind loading as well as to seismic excitation together with axial loading arising from the self-weight of the tower and the mechanical parts. The Blade element momentum theory is taken into consideration in order to produce the wind load time histories, while the site seismic response is obtained through one dimensional shear wave propagation analysis. The soil–surface foundation system is formulated as equivalent lateral and rotational springs, while the case of monopile system is treated as a prismatic beam on elastic foundation assigning the corresponding springs and dashpots along its length. An extensive case study is carried out on a wind turbine tower–foundation system employing the generated wind velocity time histories and recorded earthquake accelerograms, providing insight to several structural phenomena. The results of the proposed model are compared wherever possible with those obtained from a commercial finite elements software package, illustrating the validity and the efficiency of the developed method. From the obtained results, the strong influence of the nonlinear effects on the dynamic response of the wind turbine tower is verified.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Wind turbine tower of variable cross section founded on either surface (a) or monopile foundation (b)

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Fig. 2

JMA (a) and Lefkada (b) excitation motion accelerograms scaled to 0.8 g

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Fig. 3

HAWT turbine blade

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Fig. 4

Time history of the total force F¯N(t) applied at the top of the tower

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Fig. 5

Modeshapes of wind turbine tower with surface foundation—fixed support (a), surface foundation—elastic support (b), and monopile foundation (c)

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Fig. 6.

Time history of relative displacements for JMA (a) and Lefkada (b) recording and corresponding FFT analyses ((c) and (d)) (nonlinear analysis, load case I)

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Fig. 7

Deflection wi (i = t, p) (a) and bending moment Miy (i = t, p) (b) envelopes for JMA recording (nonlinear analysis, load case I)

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Fig. 8

Deflection wi (i = t, p) (a) and bending moment Miy (i = t, p) (b) envelopes for Lefkada recording (nonlinear analysis, load case I)

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Fig. 9

Time history of relative displacement for wind loading (a) and corresponding FFT analyses (b) (Vb = 27.00 m/s, σ = 3.30 m/s, load case II)

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Fig. 10

Deflection wi (i = t, p) and bending moment Miy (i = t, p) envelopes for wind loading (Vb = 27.00 m/s, σ = 3.30 m/s, load case II)

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Fig. 11

Time history of relative displacement for JMA (a) and Lefkada (b) recording and wind loading with Vb = 27.00 m/s, σ = 3.30 m/s and corresponding FFT analyses ((c) and (d)) (load case III)

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Fig. 12

Deflection wi (i = t, p) (a) and bending moment Miy (i = t, p) (b) envelopes for JMA recording and wind loading with Vb = 27.00 m/s, σ = 3.30 m/s (load case III)

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Fig. 13

Deflection wi (i = t, p) (a) and bending moment Miy (i = t, p) (b) envelopes for Lefkada recording and wind loading with Vb = 27.00 m/s, σ = 3.30 m/s (load case III)

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