0
Research Papers

Assessment of Stiffening Type of the Cutout in Tubular Wind Turbine Towers Under Artificial Dynamic Wind Actions

[+] Author and Article Information
Christoforos A. Dimopoulos

Institute of Steel Structures,
School of Civil Engineering,
National Technical University of Athens,
Athens GR-15780, Greece
e-mail: dchristoforos@hotmail.com

Konstantina Koulatsou

Institute of Steel Structures,
School of Civil Engineering,
National Technical University of Athens,
Athens GR-15780, Greece
e-mail: konkoulatsou@gmail.com

Francesco Petrini

Department of Structural
and Geotechnical Engineering,
Sapienza University of Rome,
Rome 00184, Italy
e-mail: francesco.petrini@uniroma1.it

Charis J. Gantes

Institute of Steel Structures,
School of Civil Engineering,
National Technical University of Athens,
Athens GR-15780, Greece
e-mail: chgantes@central.ntua.gr

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Design Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF COMPUTATIONAL AND NONLINEAR DYNAMICS. Manuscript received November 14, 2013; final manuscript received July 18, 2014; published online April 2, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Carlo L. Bottasso.

J. Comput. Nonlinear Dynam 10(4), 041004 (Jul 01, 2015) (9 pages) Paper No: CND-13-1281; doi: 10.1115/1.4028074 History: Received November 14, 2013; Revised July 18, 2014; Online April 02, 2015

The effectiveness of alternative stiffening types of the cutout provided near the base of tubular steel wind turbine towers is assessed, taking into account the dynamic nature of wind loading. To that effect, artificial wind load time histories are first obtained using the public domain aero-elastic code FAST. Finite element models that have been previously validated by means of comparison with experimental results, are then used to carry out fully nonlinear dynamic analyses and compare strength and overall structural performance.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Brogan, F., and Almroth, B. O., 1970, “Buckling of Cylinders With Cutout,” AIAA, 8(2), pp. 236–240. [CrossRef]
Almroth, B. O., and Holmes, A. M. C., 1972, “Buckling of Shells With Cutouts, Experiment and Analysis,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 8(8), pp. 1057–1071. [CrossRef]
Schulz, U., 1976, “Die Stabilität axial belasteter Zylinderschalen mit Mantelöffnungen.” Bauinginieur, 51(10), pp. 387–396.
Bennett, J. G., Dove, R. C., and Butler, T. A., 1981, “An Investigation of Buckling of Steel Cylinders With Circular Cutouts Reinforced in Accordance With ASME RULES,” Report From Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Report No. NUREG/CR-2165 LA-8853-MS.
Baehre, R., and Knödel, P., 1986, Stabilität und Gebrauchsfägihkeit von biegebeanspruchten Stahlschornsteinen mit Ausschnitten, Gutachten für die Fa. Mauer u. Sohne vom Lehrstuhl für Stahl-und Leichtbau Universität Karlsruhe, Februar.
Knödel, P., and Schulz, U., 1985, Das Beulverhalten von biegebeanspruchten Zylinderschalen mit großen Mantelöffnungen, Forsch.ber. Versuchsanstalt für Stahl, Holz und Steine, Universität Karlsruhe, T, p. 1553.
Öry, H., Ferlic, N., and Reimerdes, H. G., 1987, Große Ausschnitte in langen Kreiszylinderschalen, Forsch.ber., T. 1863, 2, Fassung.
Salmi, P., and Ala-Outinen, T., 1997, “Cylindrical Shell Structures From Austenitic Stainless Under Meridional Compression,” Technical Research Centre of Finland, Report No. VTT 1897.
Dimopoulos, C. A., and Gantes, C. J., 2012, “Experimental Investigation of Buckling of Wind Turbine Tower Cylindrical Shells With Opening and Stiffening Under Bending,” Thin-Walled Struct., 54, pp. 140–155. [CrossRef]
Dimopoulos, C. A., and Gantes, C. J., 2013, “Comparison of Stiffening Types of the Cutout in Tubular Wind Turbine Towers,” J. Constr. Steel Res., 83, pp. 62–74. [CrossRef]
National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL, http://www.nrel.gov/
National Wind Technology Center, NWTC, http://www.nrel.gov/nwtc/
NWTC Computer-Aided Engineering Tools (FAST by Jason Jonkman, Ph.D.), last modified Oct. 28, 2013; last accessed Nov. 1, 2013, http://wind.nrel.gov/designcodes/simulators/fast/
Jonkman, J. M., and Buhl, M. L., Jr., 2005, “FAST User's Guide,” Technical Report No. NREL/EL-500-38230.
NWTC Computer-Aided Engineering Tools (AeroDyn by David J. Laino, Ph.D.), last modified Feb. 23, 2013; last accessed Nov. 1, 2013, http://wind.nrel.gov/designcodes/simulators/aerodyn/
Laino, D. J., and Hansen, A. C., 2002, “User's Guide to the Wind Turbine Aerodynamics Computer Software AeroDyn,” Subcontract No. TCX-9-29209-01, National Renewable Energy Laboratory.
Moriarty, P. J., and Hansen, A. C., 2005, “AeroDyn Theory Manual,” Report No. NREL/EL-500-36881.
NWTC Computer-Aided Engineering Tools (TurbSim by Neil Kelley, Bonnie Jonkman), last modified May 30, 2013; last accessed Nov. 1, 2013, http://wind.nrel.gov/designcodes/preprocessors/turbsim/
Jonkman, B. J., and Kilcher, L., 2012, “TurbSim User's Guide,” Technical Report No. NREL/TP-500-39797.
IEC 61400-1, 2005, Wind Turbines, Part I—Design Requirements, 3rd ed., International Standard, International Electrotechnical Commission.
Burton, T., Sharpe, D., Jenkins, N., and Bossanyi, E., 2001, Wind Energy Handbook, Wiley, New York.
Hansen, M. O. L., 2008, Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines, 2nd ed., Earthscan, London, UK.
Borri, C., Biagini, P., and Marino, E., 2011, “Large Wind Turbines in Earthquake Areas: Structural Analyses, Design/Construction & In-Situ Testing,” Environmental Wind Engineering and Design of Wind Energy Structures—CISM Courses and Lectures, Vol. 531, C. Baniotopoulos, C. Borri, and T. Stathopoulos, eds., Springer, Vienna, pp. 295–350. [CrossRef]
Ingram, G., 2011, “Wind Turbine Blade Analysis Using the Blade Element Momentum Method,” (Version 1.1), last accessed Jan. 27, 2012, available at http://www.dur.ac.uk/g.l.ingram/download/wind_turbine_design.pdf
“Computer-Aided Engineering Tools,” http://wind.nrel.gov/designcodes/simulators/fast/, National Renewable Energy Laboratory
Manjock, A., 2005, “Evaluation Report: Design Codes FAST and ADAMS for Load Calculations of Onshore Wind Turbines,” Report No. 72042, Germanischer Lloyd WindEnergie GmbH, Humburg, Germany.
ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/EXPLICIT—Version 6.8-1, 2008, “Abaqus Theory Manual,” Dassault Systems.
Vamvatsikos, D., and Cornell, C. A., 2002, “Incremental Dynamic Analysis,” Earthquake Eng. Struct. Dyn., 31(3), pp. 491–514. [CrossRef]
Di Paola, M., 1998, “Digital Simulation of Wind Field Velocity,” J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 74–76, pp. 91–109. [CrossRef]
Dimopoulos, C. A., 2012, “Stiffening of Manhole Opening of Steel Wind Turbine Tower Shells—Experimental and Numerical Investigation,” Ph.D. thesis Doctor of Philosophy, School of Civil Engineering, National Technical University of Athens (in Greek).
Rotter, J. M., and Teng, J.-G., 1989, “Elastic Stability of Cylindrical Shells With Weld Depressions,” J. Struct. Eng., 115(5), pp. 1244–1263. [CrossRef]
Eurocode, 2006, 3-Design of Steel Structures, Part 1-6: Strength and Stability of Shell Structures, European Committee for Standardization.
Hilber, H. M., Hughes, T. J. R., and Taylor, R. L., 1977, “Improved Numerical Dissipation for Time Integration Algorithms in Structural Dynamics,” Earthquake Eng. Struct. Dyn., 5(3), pp. 283–292. [CrossRef]
Riks, E., 1979, “An Incremental Approach to the Solution of Snapping and Buckling Problems,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 15(7), pp. 529–551. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Operation of NREL—NTWC simulators

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Evaluation of the relative angle of attack a and the relative velocity W of the wind according to BEM theory

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Blade tip radius R, spanwise length dr and reference system for the evaluation of aerodynamic actions according to BEM theory

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Wind velocity time histories

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Time histories of wind forces acting on the hub

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Time histories of wind moments acting on the hub

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Prototype tower (left), manhole dimensions (middle), and thickness (in mm) distribution along tower's height (in m) (right)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Stiffening types (a) frame stiffener and (b) two stringers and a ring

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

A typical numerical model (left) and detail of the shell element part (right)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Time history plots of the bending moment reaction of quality C shell with cutout stiffened with frame stiffener of 175 mm width for SF = 4.5, SF = 4.6, and SF = 4.7 (a) complete results and (b) results during last 100 s

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Deformation patterns and von Mises stress distribution at the last step of dynamic analysis of quality C shell with cutout stiffened with frame stiffener of 175 mm width (a) SF = 4.5, (b) SF = 4.6, and (c) SF = 4.7

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

(a) Load factor λ—displacement curve and (b) deformed shape and von Mises stress distribution at the last equilibrium step of static analysis of quality C shell with cutout stiffened with frame stiffener of 175 mm width

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In