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Research Papers

Experimental Validation of a Volumetric Planetary Rover Wheel/Soil Interaction Model

[+] Author and Article Information
Willem Petersen

Department of Systems Design Engineering,
University of Waterloo,
Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada
e-mail: wpeterse@uwaterloo.ca

John McPhee

Department of Systems Design Engineering,
University of Waterloo,
Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada
e-mail: mcphee@uwaterloo.ca

The boundary effects have been neglected.

Contributed by the Design Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF COMPUTATIONAL AND NONLINEAR DYNAMICS. Manuscript received June 19, 2013; final manuscript received November 25, 2014; published online April 2, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Parviz Nikravesh.

J. Comput. Nonlinear Dynam 10(5), 051001 (Sep 01, 2015) (12 pages) Paper No: CND-13-1146; doi: 10.1115/1.4029257 History: Received June 19, 2013; Revised November 25, 2014; Online April 02, 2015

For the multibody simulation of planetary rover operations, a wheel–soil contact model is necessary to represent the forces and moments between the tire and the soft soil. A novel nonlinear contact modeling approach based on the properties of the hypervolume of interpenetration is validated in this paper. This normal contact force model is based on the Winkler foundation model with nonlinear spring properties. To fully define the proposed normal contact force model for this application, seven parameters are required. Besides the geometry parameters that can be easily measured, three soil parameters representing the hyperelastic and plastic properties of the soil have to be identified. Since it is very difficult to directly measure the latter set of soil parameters, they are identified by comparing computer simulations with experimental results of drawbar pull tests performed under different slip conditions on the Juno rover of the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). A multibody dynamics model of the Juno rover including the new wheel/soil interaction model was developed and simulated in maplesim. To identify the wheel/soil contact model parameters, the cost function of the model residuals of the kinematic data is minimized. The volumetric contact model is then tested by using the identified contact model parameters in a forward dynamics simulation of the rover on an irregular three-dimensional terrain and compared against experiments.

Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Topics: Simulation , Soil , Wheels
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References

Wong, J., 1967, “Behaviour of Soil Beneath Rigid Wheels,” J. Agric. Eng. Res., 12(4), pp. 257–269. [CrossRef]
Wong, J., 2010, Terramechanicsand Off-Road Vehicle Engineering—Terrain Behaviour, Off-Road Vehicle Performance and Design, 3rd ed., Elsevier Ltd., London, UK.
Ishigami, G., Miwa, A., Nagatani, K., and Yoshida, K., 2007, “Terramechanics-Based Model for Steering Maneuver of Planetary Exploration Rovers on Loose Soil,” J. Field Rob., 24(3), pp. 233–250. [CrossRef]
Scharringhausen, M., Beermann, D., Krömer, O., and Richter, L., 2009, “A Wheel–Soil Interaction Model for Planetary Application,” Proceedings of the 11th European Regional Conference of ISTVS, Bremen, Germany.
Favaedi, Y., Pechev, A., Scharringhausen, M., and Richter, L., 2011, “Prediction of Tractive Response for Flexible Wheels With Application to Planetary Rovers,” J. Terramech., 48(3), pp. 199–213. [CrossRef]
Iagnemma, K., and Dubowsky, S., 2004, Mobile Robots in Rough Terrain: Estimation, Motion Planning, and Control With Application to Planetary Rovers, Vol. 12, Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany.
Trease, B., Arvidson, R., Lindemann, R., Bennett, K., Zhou, F., Iagnemma, K., Senatore, C., and Van Dyke, L., 2011, “Dynamic Modeling and Soil Mechanics for Path Planning of Mars Exploration Rovers,” ASME Paper No. DETC2011-47896. [CrossRef]
Petersen, W., and McPhee, J., 2013, “A Nonlinear Volumetric Contact Model for Planetary Rover Wheel/Soil Interaction,” ASME Paper No. DETC2013-13483. [CrossRef]
Petersen, W., 2012, “A Volumetric Contact Model for Planetary Rover Wheel/Soil Interaction,” Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Systems Design Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada.
Gonthier, Y., McPhee, J., Lange, C., and Piedboeuf, J. C., 2005, “A Contact Modeling Method Based on Volumetric Properties,” ASME Paper No. DETC2005-84610. [CrossRef]
Gonthier, Y., 2007, “Contact Dynamics Modelling for Robotic Task Simulation,” Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Systems Design Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada.
Petersen, W., and McPhee, J., 2011, “A Study of Volumetric Contact Modelling Approaches in Rigid Tire Simulation for Planetary Rover Application,” Int. J. Veh. Des., 64(2–4), pp. 262–279. [CrossRef]
Boos, M., and McPhee, J., 2013, “Volumetric Modeling and Experimental Validation of Normal Contact Dynamic Forces,” ASME J. Comput. Nonlinear Dyn., 8(2), p. 021006. [CrossRef]
Johnson, K. L., 1985, Contact Mechanics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. [CrossRef]
Bekker, M. G., 1962, Theory of Land Locomotion—The Mechanics of Vehicle Mobility, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MI.
Bekker, M. G., 1969, Introduction to Terrain-Vehicle Systems, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MI.
Azimi, A., Hirschkorn, M., Ghotbi, B., Kövecses, J., Angeles, J., Radziszewski, P., Teichmann, M., Courchesne, M., and Gonthier, Y., 2011, “Terrain Modelling in Simulation-Based Performance Evaluation of Rovers,” Can. Aeronaut. Space J., 57(1), pp. 24–33. [CrossRef]
Petersen, W., and McPhee, J., 2012, “Identification of Volumetric Wheel/Soil Interaction Model Parameters From Planetary Rover Experiments,” Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Terrain-Vehicle Systems ISTVS, Pretoria, South Africa.
Senatore, C., and Iagnemma, K. D., 2011, “Direct Shear Behaviour of Dry, Granular Soils for Low Normal Stress With Application to Lightweight Robotic Vehicle Modelling,” Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Terrain-Vehicle Systems ISTVS, Blacksburg, VA, pp. 1–11.
Scharringhausen, M., Beermann, D., Krömer, O., and Richter, L., 2009, “Single-Wheel Tests for Planetary Applications at DLR Bremen,” Proceedings of the 11th European Regional Conference of ISTVS, Bremen, Germany.

Figures

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Fig. 1

Volumetric wheel/soil model schematic

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Fig. 2

Juno rover (approx. dimensions 1.5 × 1.5 × 0.6 m)

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Fig. 3

Juno rover model as implemented in maplesim

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Fig. 4

Optimization inputs from experimental data of the first drawbar pull test

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Fig. 5

Optimization objectives from experimental data of the first drawbar pull test

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Fig. 6

Optimization inputs from experimental data of the second drawbar pull test

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Fig. 7

Optimization objectives from experimental data of the second drawbar pull test

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Fig. 8

Optimization inputs from experimental data of the third drawbar pull test

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Fig. 9

Optimization objectives from experimental data of the third drawbar pull test

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Fig. 10

Comparison of the identified model parameters. For the curve fit, the characteristic nonlinear model provided by the contact model was used.

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Fig. 11

Raw LIDAR scan data

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Fig. 12

Scanned 3D terrain of experiment

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Fig. 13

Comparison of longitudinal dynamics

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Fig. 14

Comparison of wheel spin

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Fig. 15

Comparison of drive torques (controlling wheel spin)

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Fig. 16

Longitudinal speed of chassis and curve-fit for simulation

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Fig. 17

Comparison of longitudinal speed of chassis and prism

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Fig. 18

Comparison of drive torques (controlling forward speed)

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