Technical Brief

ANCF Continuum-Based Soil Plasticity for Wheeled Vehicle Off-Road Mobility

[+] Author and Article Information
Antonio M. Recuero

Computational Dynamics, Inc.,
1809 Wisconsin Avenue,
Berwyn, IL 60402

Ulysses Contreras, Mohil Patel, Ahmed A. Shabana

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering,
University of Illinois at Chicago,
842 West Taylor Street,
Chicago, IL 60607

Contributed by the Design Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF COMPUTATIONAL AND NONLINEAR DYNAMICS. Manuscript received June 5, 2015; final manuscript received November 15, 2015; published online January 4, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Ahmet S. Yigit.

J. Comput. Nonlinear Dynam 11(4), 044504 (Jan 04, 2016) (5 pages) Paper No: CND-15-1150; doi: 10.1115/1.4032076 History: Received June 05, 2015; Revised November 15, 2015

This technical brief describes the procedure and demonstrates the feasibility of integrating soil/tire models using the absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF). The effects of both the soil plasticity and the tire elasticity are captured using ANCF finite elements (FEs). Capturing the tire/soil dynamic interaction is necessary for the construction of higher fidelity off-road vehicle models. ANCF finite elements, as will be demonstrated in this paper, can be effectively used for the modeling of tire and soil mechanics. In this investigation, the soil model is developed using ANCF hexahedral finite elements, while the tire model can be developed using different ANCF finite elements including beam, plate, or solid elements; ANCF plate elements are used in this investigation for demonstration purposes. The Drucker–Prager plastic material, which is used to model the behavior of the soil, is appropriate for the simulation of a number of types of soils and offers a good starting point for computational plasticity in terramechanics applications. Such higher fidelity simulations can be fruitfully applied toward the investigation of complex dynamic phenomena in terramechanics. The proposed ANCF/Drucker–Prager soil model is implemented in a multibody system (MBS) algorithm which allows for using the ANCF reference node (ANCF-RN) to apply linear connectivity conditions between ANCF finite elements and the rigid components of the vehicle. This new implementation is demonstrated using a tire of an off-road wheeled vehicle. The generality of the approach allows for the simulation of general vehicle maneuvers over unprepared terrain. Unlike other approaches that implement force or superelement models into an MBS simulation environment, in the approach proposed in this paper both the soil material and vehicle parameters can be altered independently. This allows for a greater degree of flexibility in the development of computational models for the evaluation of the off-road wheeled vehicle performance.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Wong, J. Y. , 2010, Terramechanics and Off-Road Vehicle Engineering, 2nd ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK.
Shoop, S. A. , 2001, “ Finite Element Modeling of Tire-Terrain Interaction,” U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Engineer Research and Development Center, Technical Report No. ERDC/CRREL TR-01-16.
Liu, C. H. , and Wong, J. Y. , 1996, “ Numerical Simulations of Tire–Soil Interaction Based on Critical State Soil Mechanics,” J. Terramechanics, 33(5), pp. 209–221. [CrossRef]
Taheri, S. , Sandu, C. , Taheri, S. , Pinto, E. , and Gorsich, D. , 2015, “ A Technical Survey on Terramechanics Models for Tire–Terrain Interaction Used in Modeling and Simulation of Wheeled Vehicles,” J. Terramechanics, 57, pp. 1–22. [CrossRef]
Contreras, U. , Li, G. B. , Foster, C. D. , Shabana, A. A. , Jayakumar, P. , and Letherwood, M. , 2013, “ Soil Models and Vehicle System Dynamics,” ASME Appl. Mech. Rev., 65(4), p. 040802. [CrossRef]
Xia, K. , and Yang, Y. , 2012, “ Three-Dimensional Finite Element Modeling of Tire/Ground Interaction,” Int. J. Numer. Anal. Methods Geomech., 36(4), pp. 498–516. [CrossRef]
Hambleton, J. P. , and Drescher, A. , 2009, “ On Modeling a Rolling Wheel in the Presence of Plastic Deformation as a Three- or Two-Dimensional Process,” Int. J. Mech. Sci., 51(11), pp. 846–855. [CrossRef]
Nankali, N. , Namjoo, M. , and Maleki, M. R. , 2012, “ Stress Analysis of Tractor Tire Interaction With Soft Soil Using 2D Finite Element Method,” Int. J. Adv. Des. Manuf. Technol., 5(3), pp. 107–111.
Xia, K. , 2011, “ Finite Element Modeling of Tire/Terrain Interaction: Application to Predicting Soil Compaction and Tire Mobility,” J. Terramechanics, 48(2), pp. 113–123. [CrossRef]
Grujicic, M. , Bell, W. C. , Arakere, G. , and Haque, I. , 2009, “ Finite Element Analysis of the Effect of Up-Armouring on the Off-Road Braking and Sharp-Turn Performance of a High-Mobility Multi-Purpose Wheeled Vehicle,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part D, 223(11), pp. 1419–1434. [CrossRef]
Mohsenimanesh, A. , Ward, S. M. , Owende, P. O. M. , and Javadi, A. , 2009, “ Modeling of Pneumatic Tractor Tyre Interaction With Multi-Layered Soil,” Biosyst. Eng., 104(2), pp. 191–198. [CrossRef]
Pruiksma, J. P. , Kruse, G. A. M. , Teunissen, J. A. M. , and van Winnendael, M. F. P. , 2011, “ Tractive Performance Modelling of the Exomars Rover Wheel Design on Loosely Packed Soil Using the Coupled Eulerian–Lagrangian Finite Element Technique,” 11th Symposium on Advanced Space Technologies in Robotics and Automation, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, Apr. 12–14, pp. 12–15.
Shoop, S. A. , Kestler, K. , and Haehnel, R. , 2006, “ Finite Element Modeling of Tires on Snow,” Tire Sci. Technol., 34(1), pp. 2–37. [CrossRef]
Li, H. , and Schindler, C. , 2013, “ Analysis of Soil Compaction and Tire Mobility With Finite Element Method,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part K, 227(3), pp. 275–291. [CrossRef]
Contreras, U. , Recuero, A. M. , Hamed, A. M. , Wei, C. , Foster, C. , Jayakumar, P. , Letherwood, M. D. , Gorsich, D. J. , and Shabana, A. A. , 2014, “ Implementation of Continuum-Based Plasticity Formulation for Vehicle/Soil Interaction in Multibody System Algorithms,” Modeling and Simulation, Validation and Testing, GVSETS, Novi, MI, Aug. 12–14.
Contreras, U. , Recuero, A. M. , Jayakumar, P. , Foster, C. , Letherwood, M. D. , Gorsich, D. J. , and Shabana, A. A. , “ Integration of ANCF Continuum-Based Soil Plasticity for Off-Road Vehicle Mobility in Multibody System Dynamics,” (to be submitted).
Yakoub, R. Y. , and Shabana, A. A. , 1999, “ Use of Cholesky Coordinates and the Absolute Nodal Coordinate Formulation in the Computer Simulation of Flexible Multibody Systems,” Nonlinear Dyn., 20(3), pp. 267–282. [CrossRef]
de Borst, R. , and Groen, A. E. , 1999, “ Towards Efficient and Robust Elements for 3D-Soil Plasticity,” Comput. Struct., 70(1), pp. 23–34. [CrossRef]
de Souza Neto, E. A. , Peric, D. , and Owen, D. R. J. , 2008, Computational Methods for Plasticity: Theory and Applications, Wiley, New York.
Simo, J. C. , and Hughes, T. J. R. , 1998, Computational Inelasticity, Springer, New York.
Borja, R. I. , 2013, Plasticity: Modeling & Computation, Springer, New York.
Olshevskiy, A. , Dmitrochenko, O. , and Kim, C. W. , 2013, “ Three-Dimensional Solid Brick Element Using Slopes in the Absolute Nodal Coordinate Formulation,” ASME J. Comput. Nonlinear Dyn., 9(2), p. 021001. [CrossRef]
Shabana, A. A. , 2015, “ ANCF Reference Node for Multibody System Analysis,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part K, 229, pp. 109–112.
Recuero, A. M. , Aceituno, J. F. , Escalona, J. L. , and Shabana, A. A. , “ A Nonlinear Approach for Modeling Rail Flexibility Using the Absolute Nodal Coordinate Formulation,” Nonlinear Dyn. (published online).
Liu, C. , Tian, Q. , and Hu, H. Y. , 2011, “ Dynamics of Large Scale Rigid-Flexible Multibody System Composed of Composite Laminated Plates,” Multibody Syst. Dyn., 26(3), pp. 283–305. [CrossRef]
Patel, M. , Orzechowski, G. , Tian, Q. , and Shabana, A. A. , “ A New MBS Approach for Tire Modeling Using ANCF Finite Elements,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part K (published online).


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Drucker–Prager yield surface in principal stress space and P–Q space

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

ANCF tire–soil system in initial configuration

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Soil sinkage in tire–soil system at t = 0.375 s

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Soil sinkage in tire–soil system at t = 1.75 s

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Soil sinkage in tire–soil system at t = 2.25 s

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

εyy tire strain in tire–soil system at t = 0.375 s

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

εyy tire strain in tire–soil system at t = 2.225 s

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

(a) Tire rim longitudinal position and (b) first component of rim reference node rx




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In