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Research Papers

Modeling and Analysis of Gear-Shifting Process of Motor-Transmission Coupled Drive System

[+] Author and Article Information
Hongxu Chen

State Key Laboratory of Automotive
Safety and Energy,
Tsinghua University,
Beijing 100084, China
e-mail: herschel.chen@gmail.com

Xiaoxiao Cheng

State Key Laboratory of Automotive
Safety and Energy,
Tsinghua University,
Beijing 100084, China
e-mail: cxx248@163.com

Guangyu Tian

Professor
State Key Laboratory of Automotive
Safety and Energy,
Tsinghua University,
Beijing 100084, China
e-mail: tian_gy@tsinghua.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Design Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF COMPUTATIONAL AND NONLINEAR DYNAMICS. Manuscript received August 13, 2015; final manuscript received November 24, 2015; published online January 28, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Corina Sandu.

J. Comput. Nonlinear Dynam 11(2), 021013 (Jan 28, 2016) (15 pages) Paper No: CND-15-1241; doi: 10.1115/1.4032100 History: Received August 13, 2015; Revised November 24, 2015

Motor-transmission coupled drive system is attractive for battery and hybrid electric vehicles. In such a system, the motor rotor is directly connected to the transmission input shaft and the active-synchronization technique is implemented to assist the speed synchronization; therefore, the gear-shifting characteristics are different from those of traditional manual and automated mechanical transmissions. In this work, we present a methodology for modeling the gear-shifting process and analyzing its characteristics in a motor-transmission coupled drive system. We treat the engaging of sleeve and desired clutch gear as a two-phase process—sleeve first interacting with synchro ring and then with clutch gear, respectively, and investigate all possible interaction ways in each phase. The movement of each part is governed by multibody dynamics, and the speed jumps caused by shifting impacts are described using the Poisson coefficient of restitution. We then develop a hybrid automaton (HA) model to couple the continuous-time evolutions and the discrete transitions of state variables, which cover all interaction ways of sleeve, synchro ring, and clutch gear. Based on this model, we carry out simulations in matlab to analyze the effects of two control parameters—the relative rotational speed of sleeve and desired clutch gear, and the shifting force—on shifting performance. Simulation and bench test results show that the optimal control parameters are located in the domain where the relative rotational speed is negative with small absolute value, which means the sleeve will not be locked out by synchro ring and can engage with the desired clutch gear smoothly.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Configuration of a clutchless motor-transmission coupled drive system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

For shifting gears, the mechanical coupling mode of sleeve, synchro rings, and clutch gears switches in accordance with the axial movement of the sleeve: (a) first gear, (b) neutral gear, and (c) second gear

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

The splines of sleeve and second clutch gear, and the splines and the lug boss of second synchro ring are focused: (a) splines and lug boss and (b) schematic diagram

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Sleeve and second synchro ring move forward axially together through a positioning device, which includes a spring plunger and a sliding block: (a) positioning device and (b) relative position

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Taking ωslv < ωgr as an example, and five interaction ways of sleeve and second clutch gear are present: (a) obverse contacting, (b) obverse contacting + forward + reverse contacting, (c) exact engaging, (d) reverse contacting, and (e) reverse contacting + backward + obverse contacting

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

HA model of gear-shifting process

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Fig. 7

Six degrees-of-freedom are present during the gear shift from first to second

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

SC switches between four control modes (Tm1* is the unloading motor torque for disengaging, Tm2* is the unloading motor torque for engaging, Fse is a constant force, and x2 is the axial position of sleeve where it is at neutral gear)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

MC switches between four control modes (ωslv−gr* is the target relative rotational speed of the sleeve and the second clutch gear; x1 is the axial position of the sleeve where it disengages from first clutch gear)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

As the gear shift proceeds, the control mode of the MC switches between four modes, and Tm, ωgr, and ωslv change over the time t

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Fig. 11

As the gear shift proceeds, the control mode of the SC switches between four modes, and Fs, vslv, and xslv change over the time t. During the engaging, the “phase 1” represents the interaction process of sleeve and second synchro ring, and the “phase 2” represents the interaction process of sleeve and second clutch gear.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Three categories of engaging are present with different Δωslv−gr* and Fse: (a) distribution with different Δθslv-gr and (b) superposed distribution. △ represents the synchro ring locks out sleeve, * represents the synchro ring does not lock out sleeve, and + represents the high impact.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

The power interruption time tsum varies over Δωslv−gr* and Fse (maximum, minimum, and mean values of the tsum are based on different Δθslv–gr): (a) maximum and minimum tsum and (b) mean value of tsum

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

The impact Imax varies over Δωslv−gr* and Fse (maximum, minimum, and mean values of the Imax are based on different Δθslv–gr): (a) maximum and minimum Imax and (b) mean value of Imax

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

The weighted score summation Q of tsum and Imax varies over Δωslv−gr* and Fse: (a) focus on tsum and (b) focus on Imax

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Fig. 16

A gear-shift test bench for motor-transmission coupled drive system

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Fig. 17

Experimental results of power interruption time tsum varying over Δωslv−gr*

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