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Research Papers

Optimal Torque Distribution for the Stability Improvement of a Four-Wheel Distributed-Driven Electric Vehicle Using Coordinated Control

[+] Author and Article Information
Xizheng Zhang

Hunan Institute of Engineering,
Fuxing Road, No. 88,
Xiangtan City, Hunan Province 411104, China
e-mails: z_x_z2000@163.com; zxz@hnie.edu.cn

Kexiang Wei

Hunan Institute of Engineering,
Fuxing Road, No. 88,
Xiangtan City, Hunan Province 411104, China
e-mail: kxwei@hnie.edu.cn

Xiaofang Yuan

School of Electrical and Information Engineering,
Hunan University,
Lushan South Road,
Changsha City, Hunan Province 410082, China
e-mail: yuanxiaofang@hnu.edu.cn

Yongqi Tang

Hunan Institute of Engineering,
Fuxing Road, No. 88,
Xiangtan City, Hunan Province 411104, China
e-mail: 1003956839@qq.com

Contributed by the Design Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF COMPUTATIONAL AND NONLINEAR DYNAMICS. Manuscript received June 21, 2015; final manuscript received February 28, 2016; published online May 12, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Sotirios Natsiavas.

J. Comput. Nonlinear Dynam 11(5), 051017 (May 12, 2016) (11 pages) Paper No: CND-15-1175; doi: 10.1115/1.4033004 History: Received June 21, 2015; Revised February 28, 2016

This paper presented an optimal torque distribution scheme for the stability improvement of a distributed-driven electric vehicle (DEV). The nonlinear dynamics and tire model of the DEV are constructed. Moreover, the single-point preview optimal curvature model with the proportional-integral-derivative (PID) process is developed to simulate the driver's behavior. By using coordinated control and sliding mode control, a three-layer hierarchical control system was developed. In the upper level, the integral two degree-of-freedom (DOF) linear model is used to compute the equivalent yaw moment for vehicle stability. With the actuators' restrictions, the middle level solved the linear quadratic regulator (LQR) problem via a weighted least square (WLS) method to optimally distribute the wheel torque. In the lower level, a slip rate controller (SRC) was presented to reallocate the actual torques based on the sliding mode method. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme has high path-tracking accuracy and that vehicle stability under limited conditions is improved efficiently. Moreover, the safety under actuator failure is enhanced.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

The wheel rolling model

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Fig. 2

The wheel rolling in X–Y axis

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Fig. 3

The optimal curvature path

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Fig. 4

The single-point preview optimal curvature model with PID process

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Fig. 5

The working flow of the SRC

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Fig. 6

Hierarchical diagram of the control system

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Fig. 7

The step response at 80 km/hr. (a) The yaw rate and (b) the sideslip angle.

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Fig. 8

The sinusoidal response at 30 deg, π/2 Hz, 80 km/hr. (a) The yaw rate and (b) the lateral speed acceleration.

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Fig. 10

Yaw angular speed response under case A

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Fig. 11

Longitudinal forces of four wheels under case A

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Fig. 12

Slip rates of four wheels under case A

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Fig. 13

Desired (low) and actual (top) vehicle trajectories under case A

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Fig. 9

Sideslip response under case A

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Fig. 14

Sideslip response under case B

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Fig. 15

Yaw angular speed response under case B

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Fig. 16

Longitudinal forces of four wheels under case B

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Fig. 17

Slip rates of four wheels under case B

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Fig. 18

Desired (top) and actual (low) vehicle trajectories under case B

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Fig. 19

Sideslip response under case C

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Fig. 20

Yaw angular speed response under case C

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Fig. 21

Front and rear steer angles under case C

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Fig. 22

Desired and actual vehicle trajectories under case C

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