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Research Papers

Study of Train Derailments Caused by Damage to Suspension Systems

[+] Author and Article Information
S. H. Ju

Professor
Department of Civil Engineering,
National Cheng-Kung University,
Tainan City 70101, Taiwan
e-mail: juju@mail.ncku.edu.tw

Contributed by the Design Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF COMPUTATIONAL AND NONLINEAR DYNAMICS. Manuscript received February 24, 2015; final manuscript received July 17, 2015; published online October 23, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Ahmet S. Yigit.

J. Comput. Nonlinear Dynam 11(3), 031008 (Oct 23, 2015) (8 pages) Paper No: CND-15-1050; doi: 10.1115/1.4031196 History: Received February 24, 2015; Revised July 17, 2015

A nonlinear finite element method was used to investigate the derailments of trains moving on multispan simply supported bridges due to damage to suspension systems. At the simulation beginning, the initial vertical trainloads to simulate the train gravity weight are gradually added into the mass center of each rigid body in the train model with large system damping, so the initial fake vibration is well reduced. A suspension is then set to damage within the damage interval time, while the spring and/or damper changes from no damage to a given percentage of damage. Finite element parametric studies indicate the following: (1) the derailment coefficients of the wheel axis nearby the damage location are significantly increased. (2) Damage to the spring is more critical than that to the damper for the train derailment effect. (3) The derailment coefficient induced by damage to the primary suspension is more serious than that to the secondary suspension. (4) If rail irregularities are neglected, the train speed has little influence on the derailment coefficients generated from damage to suspensions. (5) The train derailment coefficients rise with a decrease in the damage interval time, so sudden damages to suspension systems should be avoided.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Illustration of the element and contact scheme for the proposed simple model. (a) The DOF of the active proposed segment of the moving wheel element and (b) the contact scheme for the simple model.

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Fig. 2

A wheel/rail contact tested case and the mesh of the complex model

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Fig. 3

Vertical (P) and horizontal (Q) contact forces and derailment coefficient (Q/P under train speed of 300 km/h) from the finite element analyses. (a) Contact forces (Q and P) between wheel and rail and (b) derailment coefficient (Q/P).

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Fig. 4

Illustration of the 3D rigid-body and spring–damper model of the high-speed train used in the parametric studies

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Fig. 5

Bridge pier, piles, and beam dimensions for the studied high-speed rail system

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Fig. 6

Finite element model of the multispan simply supported bridges (A = slave nodes to connect the beam to the concrete plate, C = slave nodes being the target nodes of train wheels, B = rail center nodes being the master nodes of nodes A and C, D = slave nodes to connect the concrete plate and the bridge beam center (master node), Krail = three-direction springs, and 6DOF spring = spring element for soil and foundation)

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Fig. 7

Illustration of the location of each wheel and bogie. (The location of the damaged primary or secondary suspension is set at point 1 or A on the nearby side of this picture for the parametric studies in this paper.)

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Fig. 8

Change in damage coefficients with time for wheel axes 1, 3, 5, and 9 with 60% damage to the primary suspension at location A in Fig. 5 (under train speed of 300 km/h without rail irregularities)

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Fig. 9

Change in the train derailment coefficient with the damage ratios of the damper and spring (under train speed of 300 km/h)

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Fig. 10

Changes in the train derailment coefficient with the damage ratio of the primary or secondary suspension (under train speed of 300 km/h without rail irregularities)

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Fig. 11

Changes in the train derailment coefficient with the train speed without rail irregularities

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Fig. 12

Changes in the train derailment coefficient with the damage interval time without rail irregularities

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