In this paper, a robust adaptive sliding mode controller is proposed. Under the existence of external disturbances, modified hybrid projective synchronization (MHPS) between two identical and two nonidentical fractional-order complex chaotic systems is achieved. It is shown that the response system could be synchronized with the drive system up to a nondiagonal scaling matrix. An adaptive controller and parameter update laws are investigated based on the Lyapunov stability theorem. The closed-loop stability conditions are derived based on the fractional-order Lyapunov function and Mittag-Leffler function. Finally, numerical simulations are given to verify the theoretical analysis.