This work presents an experimental and numerical study on the dynamic properties of viscoelastic (VE) microvibration damper under microvibration conditions at different frequencies and temperatures. The experimental results show that the storage modulus and the loss factor of VE microvibration damper both increase with increasing frequency but decrease with increasing temperature. To explicitly and accurately represent the temperature and frequency effects on the dynamic properties of VE microvibration damper, a modified standard solid model based on a phenomenological model and chain network model is proposed. A Gaussian chain spring and a temperature-dependent dashpot are employed to reflect the temperature effect in the model, and the frequency effect is considered with the nature of the standard solid model. Then, the proposed model is verified by comparing the numerical results with the experimental data. The results show that the proposed model can accurately describe the dynamic properties of VE microvibration damper at different temperatures and frequencies.