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Research Papers

A Comprehensive Set of Impact Data for Common Aerospace Metals

[+] Author and Article Information
M. R. W. Brake

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
William Marsh Rice University,
Houston, TX 77005
e-mail: brake@rice.edu

P. L. Reu

Department of Diagnostic Science
and Engineering,
Sandia National Laboratories,
Albuquerque, NM 87185

D. S. Aragon

Department of Solid Mechanics,
Sandia National Laboratories,
Albuquerque, NM 87185

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Design Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF COMPUTATIONAL AND NONLINEAR DYNAMICS. Manuscript received November 29, 2016; final manuscript received May 10, 2017; published online September 7, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Przemyslaw Perlikowski.The United States Government retains, and by accepting the article for publication, the publisher acknowledges that the United States Government retains, a nonexclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, worldwide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this work, or allow others to do so, for United States government purposes.

J. Comput. Nonlinear Dynam 12(6), 061011 (Sep 07, 2017) (23 pages) Paper No: CND-16-1589; doi: 10.1115/1.4036760 History: Received November 29, 2016; Revised May 10, 2017

The results of two sets of impact experiments are reported within. To assist with model development using the impact data reported, the materials are mechanically characterized using a series of standard experiments. The first set of impact data comes from a series of coefficient of restitution (COR) experiments, in which a 2 m long pendulum is used to study “in-context” measurements of the coefficient of restitution for eight different materials (6061-T6 aluminum, phosphor bronze alloy 510, Hiperco, nitronic 60A, stainless steel 304, titanium, copper, and annealed copper). The coefficient of restitution is measured via two different techniques: digital image correlation (DIC) and laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV). Due to the strong agreement of the two different methods, only results from the digital image correlation are reported. The coefficient of restitution experiments are in context as the scales of the geometry and impact velocities are representative of common features in the motivating application for this research. Finally, a series of compliance measurements are detailed for the same set of materials. The compliance measurements are conducted using both nano-indentation and micro-indentation machines, providing sub-nm displacement resolution and μN force resolution. Good agreement is seen for load levels spanned by both machines. As the transition from elastic to plastic behavior occurs at contact displacements on the order of 30 nm, this data set provides a unique insight into the transitionary region.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Typical tensile test setup

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Fig. 2

Experimental setup for the pendulum-based COR tests showing (a) the entire structure and (b) a close-up of the impact location

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Fig. 3

Aluminum 6061 measured (a) COR and (b) contact times. Measurements are denoted by x and the curve is from the model predictions of Ref. [6]. For the online version, red symbols denote DIC measurements and black symbols denote LDV measurements in (a).

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Fig. 4

Annealed copper measured COR. Measurements are denoted by x and the curve is from the model predictions of Ref. [6]. For the online version, red symbols denote DIC measurements and black symbols denote LDV measurements.

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Fig. 5

Copper measured COR. Measurements are denoted by x and the curve is from the model predictions of Ref. [6]. For the online version, red symbols denote DIC measurements and black symbols denote LDV measurements.

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Fig. 6

Hiperco measured (a) COR and (b) contact times. Measurements are denoted by x and the curve is from the model predictions of Ref. [6].

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Fig. 7

Nitronic 60A measured (a) COR and (b) contact times. Measurements are denoted by x and the curve is from the model predictions of Ref. [6]. For the online version, red symbols denote DIC measurements and black symbols denote LDV measurements in (a).

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Fig. 8

Phosphor Bronze measured (a) COR and (b) contact times. Measurements are denoted by x and the curve is from the model predictions of Ref. [6]. For the online version, red symbols denote DIC measurements and black symbols denote LDV measurements in (a).

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Fig. 9

Stainless Steel 304 measured (a) COR and (b) contact times. Measurements are denoted by x and the curve is from the model predictions of Ref. [6]. For the online version, red symbols denote DIC measurements and black symbols denote LDV measurements in (a).

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Fig. 10

Titanium measured (a) COR and (b) contact times. Measurements are denoted by x and the curve is from the model predictions of Ref. [6].

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Fig. 11

(a) Close-up view of the micro- and nano-indentation machines and (b) view of the sample and fixture within the micro-indentation machine

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Fig. 12

Compliance measurements of 6061 aluminum indented by the 440c Grade 100 wear resistant stainless steel sphere for peak loads of (a) 25 mN, (b) 100 mN, (c) 250 mN, (d) 1 N, (e) 5 N, and (f) 10 N. Each load has nine separate measurements.

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Fig. 13

Compliance measurements of 6061 aluminum indented by the Sapphire sphere for peak loads of (a) 25 mN, (b) 100 mN, (c) 250 mN, (d) 1 N, (e) 5 N, and (f) 10 N. Each load has nine separate measurements.

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Fig. 14

Compliance measurements of annealed copper indented by the 440c Grade 100 wear resistant stainless steel sphere for peak loads of (a) 25 mN, (b) 100 mN, (c) 250 mN, (d) 1 N, (e) 5 N, and (f) 10 N. Each load has nine separate measurements.

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Fig. 15

Compliance measurements of annealed copper indented by the Sapphire sphere for peak loads of (a) 25 mN, (b) 100 mN, (c) 250 mN, (d) 1 N, (e) 5 N, and (f) 10 N. Each load has nine separate measurements.

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Fig. 16

Compliance measurements of copper indented by the 440c Grade 100 wear resistant stainless steel sphere for peak loads of (a) 25 mN, (b) 100 mN, (c) 250 mN, (d) 1 N, (e) 5 N, and (f) 10 N. Each load has nine separate measurements.

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Fig. 17

Compliance measurements of copper indented by the Sapphire sphere for peak loads of (a) 25 mN, (b) 100 mN, (c) 250 mN, (d) 1 N, (e) 5 N, and (f) 10 N. Each load has nine separate measurements.

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Fig. 18

Compliance measurements of Hiperco indented by the 440c Grade 100 wear resistant stainless steel sphere for peak loads of (a) 25 mN, (b) 100 mN, (c) 250 mN, (d) 1 N, (e) 5 N, and (f) 10 N. Each load has nine separate measurements.

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Fig. 19

Compliance measurements of Hiperco indented by the Sapphire sphere for peak loads of (a) 25 mN, (b) 100 mN, (c) 250 mN, (d) 1 N, (e) 5 N, and (f) 10 N. Each load has nine separate measurements.

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Fig. 20

Compliance measurements of Nitronic 60 indented by the 440c Grade 100 wear resistant stainless steel sphere for peak loads of (a) 25 mN, (b) 100 mN, (c) 250 mN, (d) 1 N, (e) 5 N, and (f) 10 N. Each load has nine separate measurements.

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Fig. 21

Compliance measurements of Nitronic 60 indented by the Sapphire sphere for peak loads of (a) 25 mN, (b) 100 mN, (c) 250 mN, (d) 1 N, (e) 5 N, and (f) 10 N. Each load has nine separate measurements.

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Fig. 22

Compliance measurements of phosphor bronze indented by the 440c Grade 100 wear resistant stainless steel sphere for peak loads of (a) 25 mN, (b) 100 mN, (c) 250 mN, (d) 1 N, (e) 5 N, and (f) 10 N. Each load has nine separate measurements.

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Fig. 23

Compliance measurements of phosphor bronze indented by the Sapphire sphere for peak loads of (a) 25 mN, (b) 100 mN, (c) 250 mN, (d) 1 N, (e) 5 N, and (f) 10 N. Each load has nine separate measurements.

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Fig. 24

Compliance measurements of stainless steel 304 indented by the 440c Grade 100 wear resistant stainless steel sphere for peak loads of (a) 25 mN, (b) 100 mN, (c) 250 mN, (d) 1 N, (e) 5 N, and (f) 10 N. Each load has nine separate measurements.

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Fig. 25

Compliance measurements of stainless steel 304 indented by the Sapphire sphere for peak loads of (a) 25 mN, (b) 100 mN, (c) 250 mN, (d) 1 N, (e) 5 N, and (f) 10 N. Each load has nine separate measurements.

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Fig. 26

Compliance measurements of titanium indented by the 440c Grade 100 wear resistant stainless steel sphere for peak loads of (a) 25 mN, (b) 100 mN, (c) 250 mN, (d) 1 N, (e) 5 N, and (f) 10 N. Each load has nine separate measurements.

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Fig. 27

Compliance measurements of titanium indented by the Sapphire sphere for peak loads of (a) 25 mN, (b) 100 mN, (c) 250 mN, (d) 1 N, (e) 5 N, and (f) 10 N. Each load has nine separate measurements.

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