Modern combined cycle gas turbines are highly flexible in their operation, concerning start up, load change and shut down. Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSG) arranged downstream of the Gas Turbine (GT) are forced to operate in such a way, that the gas turbine operation is not restricted by them. Therefore, they should be designed for a high cycling capability with typical values in the range of 200 to 250 cold starts, 1000 warm and 2500 hot starts for their typical 25 year life span. Cold starts are defined as a standstill period of over 120 hours, warm starts to a weekend shutdown and hot starts to an overnight shut down.
AE Energietechnik GmbH (AE), a Babcock Borsig Power company has specialized in designing, erecting and commissioning vertical natural circulation multiple pressure stage HRSGs. The vertical design combines simplicity and low investment costs with performance reliability and high availability. In order to forecast the dynamic behaviour of such a HRSG, AE has supported the development of a dynamic simulation code at the Institute of Thermal Engineering (ITW) located at the Vienna University of Technology. This finite volume code enables the prediction of velocities, pressures and temperatures for several dynamic processes of the HRSG.
In the present paper computational results of starts and load changes will be presented for a vertical natural circulation HRSG. Furthermore, several design optimization changes which where made in order to increase operational reliability and availability will be demonstrated. Finally, practical applications of already constructed HRSG will be discussed and conclusions will be drawn.