Visual experiments were conducted to investigate freezing behavior of activated sludge. Experimental observations indicate that there existed strong interactions of advancing ice-liquid interface with sludge agglomerates during freezing treatment. Agglomerates would be pushed to move by advancing ice-liquid interface in the cases of lower advancing speeds while no needle-like ice-crystals forming at the interface. For faster freezing processes, the ice front interface line turned needle-like, while ice-crystals forming/generating at the interface, and crystals pierced into the sludge agglomerates rather than pushing them. The crystals served as roles holding the agglomerates. It seems that there was a critical speed below which repulsion occurred and above which the particles were entrapped without obviously pushing. The transition of these two cases is still needed to identify.
Interaction of Ice-Water Interface With Agglomerates of Activated Sludge During Freezing
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Tao, T, Peng, XF, Chu, CP, & Lee, DJ. "Interaction of Ice-Water Interface With Agglomerates of Activated Sludge During Freezing." Proceedings of the ASME 2003 Heat Transfer Summer Conference. Heat Transfer: Volume 1. Las Vegas, Nevada, USA. July 21–23, 2003. pp. 541-545. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/HT2003-47431
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