In this paper, the bifurcation trees of a periodically excited pendulum are investigated. Implicit discrete maps for such a pendulum are developed to construct discrete mapping structures. Bifurcation trees of the corresponding periodic motions are predicted semi-analytically through the discrete mapping structure. The corresponding stability and bifurcation analysis are carried out through eigenvalue analysis. Finally, numerical illustrations of various periodic motions are given to verify the analytical prediction. The accurate periodic motions in the periodically forced pendulum are predicted for the first time through the implicit mapping systems, and the corresponding bifurcation trees of periodic motion to chaos are obtained.

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