Comparison of various methods for analyzing characteristic features of a total system is demonstrated. Process flow diagram (PFD) shows streams and main apparatuses schematically. Hence we can imagine system configuration. However, it gives no quantitative information. Energy flow and exergy flow diagrams, respectively, show information about the first law and the second law of thermodynamics. The advantages of these diagrams disappear for a large and complex system.

Then we propose a new diagram, a process flow diagram with process vectors. Base frame of this diagram is the same of the PFD, but information about H and ε of important streams and ΔH and Δε for each change of substances is represented by drawing process vectors. And features of exergy loss are clearly depicted by their combination.

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