Abstract

In this paper, we present our experimental findings for the forced-convective condensation of pure steam and ammonia-steam vapor mixture in a horizontal annulus in a counter-current shell-tube condenser. Experiments with ammonia-steam mixtures were conducted for ∼ 90% ammonia concentration (by wt.) for vapor inlet mass fluxes ranging from 2 to 5 kg/m2s. The local heat transfer coefficient varied considerably along the condenser and this variation was strongly linked to the condensate flow patterns in the annulus. Based on a condensate drainage model, the flow in the annulus was mapped on to flow maps for horizontal in-tube condensing flows. The delineated flow regimes were utilized to explain augmentation or deterioration of local heat transfer in the condenser. The average heat transfer coefficients are presented as a function of the condensate and vapor Reynolds number for both steam and ammonia-steam mixture. The results for pure steam are higher than those predicted by annular flow correlation developed in the past. For ammonia-steam mixtures, the average heat transfer coefficients are about 16% of those for pure steam due to the vapor layer resistance at the interface.

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