The effects of Ti-6Al-4V part size on its temperature distribution during the blown-powder directed energy deposition-laser (DED-L) process was investigated through dual-thermographic monitoring and a unique modeling technique. Results demonstrate that the duration of dwell times are a significant contributing factor affecting the rate at which a steady-state temperature field is achieved. Longer walls took significantly more layers/time to achieve a uniform temperature profile. Maximum and average melt pool temperatures appear to be near independent of part size at a steady state. Finite element simulation results show that a quasi-steady melt pool temperature may be unique to a layer, especially for layers near the substrate. Layer-wise steady melt pool temperatures were achieved within the first few seconds of track scanning. A proposed fin modeling-based temperature distribution was found to predict the thermal profile in a ‘substrate affected zone’ (SAZ) along the scan direction within 5%. A method to predict the onset of the SAZ has also been proposed. Process parameters used for the DED-L of component volumes are not necessarily optimal for thin-walled structures due to their significantly lower thermal capacity.

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