0
Research Papers

Accuracy of Wearable Sensors for Estimating Joint Reactions

[+] Author and Article Information
Ryan S. McGinnis

Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: ryanmcg@umich.edu

Jessandra Hough

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: jesshough3@gmail.com

Noel C. Perkins

Fellow ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48109
e-mail: ncp@umich.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Design Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF COMPUTATIONAL AND NONLINEAR DYNAMICS. Manuscript received March 12, 2016; final manuscript received December 28, 2016; published online January 24, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Sotirios Natsiavas.

J. Comput. Nonlinear Dynam 12(4), 041010 (Jan 24, 2017) (10 pages) Paper No: CND-16-1129; doi: 10.1115/1.4035667 History: Received March 12, 2016; Revised December 28, 2016

Miniature wireless inertial measurement units (IMUs) hold great promise for measuring and analyzing multibody system dynamics. This relatively inexpensive technology enables noninvasive motion tracking in broad applications, including human motion analysis. This paper advances the use of an array of IMUs to estimate the joint reactions (forces and moments) in multibody systems via inverse dynamic modeling. In particular, this paper reports a benchmark experiment on a double-pendulum that reveals the accuracy of IMU-informed estimates of joint reactions. The estimated reactions are compared to those measured by high-precision miniature (6 degrees-of-freedom) load cells. Results from ten trials demonstrate that IMU-informed estimates of the three-dimensional reaction forces remain within 5.0% RMS of the load cell measurements and with correlation coefficients greater than 0.95 on average. Similarly, the IMU-informed estimates of the three-dimensional reaction moments remain within 5.9% RMS of the load cell measurements and with correlation coefficients greater than 0.88 on average. The sensitivity of these estimates to mass center location is discussed. Looking ahead, this benchmarking study supports the promising and broad use of this technology for estimating joint reactions in human motion applications.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Kurtz, S. , Ong, K. , Lau, E. , Mowat, F. , and Halpern, M. , 2007, “ Projections of Primary and Revision Hip and Knee Arthroplasty in the United States From 2005 to 2030,” J. Bone Jt. Surg., 89(4), pp. 780–785.
Favre, J. , Erhart-Hledik, J. C. , Chehab, E. F. , and Andriacchi, T. P. , 2016, “ General Scheme to Reduce the Knee Adduction Moment by Modifying a Combination of Gait Variables,” J. Orthop. Res., 34(9), pp. 1547–1556. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Winter, D. A. , 1990, Biomechanics and Motor Control of Human Movement, Wiley, New York.
Langenderfer, J. E. , Laz, P. J. , Petrella, A. J. , and Rullkoetter, P. J. , 2008, “ An Efficient Probabilistic Methodology for Incorporating Uncertainty in Body Segment Parameters and Anatomical Landmarks in Joint Loadings Estimated From Inverse Dynamics,” ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 130(1), p. 014502. [CrossRef]
Davy, D. T. , and Audu, M. L. , 1987, “ A Dynamic Optimization Technique for Predicting Muscle Forces in the Swing Phase of Gait,” J. Biomech., 20(2), pp. 187–201. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Riemer, R. , Hsiao-Wecksler, E. T. , and Zhang, X. , 2008, “ Uncertainties in Inverse Dynamics Solutions: A Comprehensive Analysis and An Application to Gait,” Gait Posture, 27(4), pp. 578–588. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
van den Noort, J. C. , van der Esch, M. , Steultjens, M. P. M. , Dekker, J. , Schepers, H. M. , Veltink, P. H. , and Harlaar, J. , 2012, “ The Knee Adduction Moment Measured With an Instrumented Force Shoe in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis,” J. Biomech., 45(2), pp. 281–288. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Krüger, A. , McAlpine, P. , Borrani, F. , and Edelmann-Nusser, J. , 2012, “ Determination of Three-Dimensional Joint Loading Within the Lower Extremities in Snowboarding,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. H, 226(2), pp. 170–175. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Rouhani, H. , Favre, J. , Crevoisier, X. , and Aminian, K. , 2011, “ Ambulatory Measurement of Ankle Kinetics for Clinical Applications,” J. Biomech., 44(15), pp. 2712–2718. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Faber, G. S. , Kingma, I. , and van Dieën, J. H. , 2010, “ Bottom-Up Estimation of Joint Moments During Manual Lifting Using Orientation Sensors Instead of Position Sensors,” J. Biomech., 43(7), pp. 1432–1436. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
McGinnis, R. S. , and Perkins, N. C. , 2012, “ A Highly Miniaturized, Wireless Inertial Measurement Unit for Characterizing the Dynamics of Pitched Baseballs and Softballs,” Sensors, 12(9), pp. 11933–11945. [CrossRef]
King, K. , Hough, J. , McGinnis, R. , and Perkins, N. , 2012, “ A New Technology for Resolving the Dynamics of a Swinging Bat,” Sports Eng., 15(1), pp. 41–52. [CrossRef]
King, K. , Perkins, N. C. , Churchill, H. , McGinnis, R. , Doss, R. , and Hickland, R. , 2010, “ Bowling Ball Dynamics Revealed by Miniature Wireless MEMS Inertial Measurement Unit,” Sports Eng., 13(2), pp. 95–104. [CrossRef]
McGinnis, R. S. , Hough, J. , and Perkins, N. C. , 2013, “ Benchmarking the Accuracy of Inertial Measurement Units for Estimating Joint Reactions,” ASME Paper No. IMECE2013-63300.
King, K. W. , 2008, “ The Design and Application of Wireless MEMS Inertial Measurement Units for the Measurement and Analysis of Golf Swings,” Ph.D., University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
Kane, T. R. , Likins, P. W. , and Levinson, D. A. , 1983, Spacecraft Dynamics, McGraw-Hill Book, New York.
Savage, P. , 2000, Strapdown Analytics, Strapdown Associates, Maple Plain, MN.
Titterton, D. H. , and Weston, J. L. , 2004, Strapdown Inertial Navigation Technology, Institution of Electrical Engineers, Stevenage, UK.
McGinnis, R. , Cain, S. , Davidson, S. , Vitali, R. , McLean, S. , and Perkins, N. , 2014, “ Validation of Complementary Filter Based IMU Data Fusion for Tracking Torso Angle and Rifle Orientation,” ASME Paper No. IMECE2014-36909.
McGinnis, R. S. , Cain, S. M. , Tao, S. , Whiteside, D. , Goulet, G. C. , Gardner, E. C. , Bedi, A. , and Perkins, N. C. , 2015, “ Accuracy of Femur Angles Estimated by IMUs During Clinical Procedures Used to Diagnose Femoroacetabular Impingement,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 62(6), pp. 1503–1513. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
McGinnis, R. S. , and Perkins, N. C. , 2013, “ Inertial Sensor Based Method for Identifying Spherical Joint Center of Rotation,” J. Biomech., 46(14), pp. 2546–2549. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Reinbolt, J. A. , Haftka, R. T. , Chmielewski, T. L. , and Fregly, B. J. , 2007, “ Are Patient-Specific Joint and Inertial Parameters Necessary for Accurate Inverse Dynamics Analyses of Gait?,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 54(5), pp. 782–793. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Hough, J. , McGinnis, R. S. , and Perkins, N. C. , 2013, “ Benchmarking the Accuracy of Inertial Measurement Units for Estimating Kinetic Energy,” ASME Paper No. IMECE2013-63303.
Holden, J. P. , and Stanhope, S. J. , 1998, “ The Effect of Variation in Knee Center Location Estimates on Net Knee Joint Moments,” Gait Posture, 7(1), pp. 1–6. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Rao, G. , Amarantini, D. , Berton, E. , and Favier, D. , 2006, “ Influence of Body Segments' Parameters Estimation Models on Inverse Dynamics Solutions During Gait,” J. Biomech., 39(8), pp. 1531–1536. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Cole, G. , Nigg, B. , van den Bogert, A. , and Gerritsen, K. , 1996, “ Lower Extremity Joint Loading During Impact in Running,” Clin. Biomech., 11(4), pp. 181–193. [CrossRef]
Pain, M. T. G. , and Challis, J. H. , 2006, “ The Influence of Soft Tissue Movement on Ground Reaction Forces, Joint Torques and Joint Reaction Forces in Drop Landings,” J. Biomech., 39(1), pp. 119–124. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic and photograph of the instrumented double-pendulum with definitions of reference frames, geometric, and inertial properties ((a) full pendulum schematic and photograph, (b) top link, and (c) bottom link). Front and back views of the inertial sensor secured to each link are shown in (d).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Free body diagrams for the bottom (a) and top (b) links of the double-pendulum

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

IMU acceleration (a) and angular velocity (b) history for an example trial sampled from the bottom link IMU. The pendulum begins at rest in its stable equilibrium position (t < t1), is perturbed from this position by hand (t1 < t < t2), and then released (t = t3).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Drift-polluted (gray) and corrected (colored) Euler parameters defining the orientation of the bottom link up until 10 s after t3 during the example trial

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Reaction force (a) and moment (b) at j2 as measured by the load cells (dashed) and estimated using IMU data (solid). The three colors distinguish components resolved in frame G: blue =  Ê1G, green =  Ê2G, and red =  Ê3G.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Three components of normalized force (a) and moment (b) acting at j2 as predicted by IMU-enabled inverse dynamic modeling plotted against those measured directly by the load cell. The three colors distinguish components resolved in frame G: blue =  Ê1G, green =  Ê2G, and red =  Ê3G and where the unit line is shown in black.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Force (a) and moment (b) components at j1 and force (c) and moment (d) components at j2 using updated mass center positions. Solid curves correspond to IMU-predicted reactions, while dashed curves correspond to load cell measurements. The three colors distinguish components resolved in frame G: blue =  Ê1T, Ê1G, green =  Ê2T, Ê2G, and red =  Ê3T, Ê3G.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Normalized force (a) and moment (b) components at j1 and normalized force (c) and moment (d) at j2 using updated mass center positions. Estimated values are plotted versus measured values. The three colors distinguish components resolved in frame G: blue =  Ê1T, Ê1G, green =  Ê2T, Ê2G, and red =  Ê3T, Ê3G and where the unit line is shown in black.

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In