Research Papers

Physics-Based Deformable Tire–Soil Interaction Model for Off-Road Mobility Simulation and Experimental Validation

[+] Author and Article Information
Hiroki Yamashita

Department of Mechanical
and Industrial Engineering,
The University of Iowa,
2312 Seamans Center,
Iowa City, IA 52242

Paramsothy Jayakumar

6501 E. 11 Mile Road,
Warren, MI 48397-5000

Mustafa Alsaleh

Caterpillar, Inc.,
Product Development & Global Technology,
14009 Old Galena Road,
Mossville, IL 61552

Hiroyuki Sugiyama

Department of Mechanical
and Industrial Engineering,
The University of Iowa,
2416C Seamans Center,
Iowa City, IA 52242
e-mail: hiroyuki-sugiyama@uiowa.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Design Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF COMPUTATIONAL AND NONLINEAR DYNAMICS. Manuscript received April 1, 2017; final manuscript received September 6, 2017; published online November 1, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Corina Sandu.This material is declared a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

J. Comput. Nonlinear Dynam 13(2), 021002 (Nov 01, 2017) (15 pages) Paper No: CND-17-1144; doi: 10.1115/1.4037994 History: Received April 01, 2017; Revised September 06, 2017

A physics-based deformable tire–soil interaction simulation capability that can be fully integrated into the monolithic multibody dynamics computer algorithm is developed by extending a deformable tire model based on the flexible multibody dynamics approach to off-road mobility simulations with a moving soil patch technique and it is validated against test data. A locking-free nine-node brick element is developed for modeling large plastic soil deformation using the multiplicative finite strain plasticity theory along with the capped Drucker–Prager failure criterion. To identify soil parameters including cohesion and friction angle, the triaxial compression test is carried out, and the soil model developed is validated against the test data. In addition to the component level validation for the tire and soil models, the tire–soil interaction simulation capability developed in this study is validated against the soil bin mobility test results. The tire forces and rolling resistance coefficients predicted by the simulation model agree well with the test results. It is shown that effect of the wheel loads and tire inflation pressures is well captured in the simulation model. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the moving soil patch technique, with which soil behavior only in the vicinity of the rolling tire is solved to reduce the soil model dimensionality, leads to a significant reduction in computational time, thereby enabling use of the high-fidelity physics-based tire–soil interaction model in the large-scale off-road mobility simulation.

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Fig. 1

Kinematics of shear deformable laminated composite shell element: (a) shear deformable shell element, (b) collision detection between tire and soil, and (c) contact nodes on tread

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Fig. 2

Tire cross section geometry and layer property

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Fig. 3

Normal contact pressure for 4 kN wheel load: (a) normal contact pressure along the longitudinal axis of contact patch coordinate system and (b) normal contact pressure along the lateral axis of contact patch coordinate system

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Fig. 4

Contact patch lengths for different wheel loads: (a) longitudinal contact patch length and (b) lateral contact patch length

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Fig. 5

Tire deflections for different wheel loads: (a) lateral tire deflection and (b) vertical tire deflection

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Fig. 6

Nine-node brick element with multiplicative plasticity model: (a) kinematics of 9-node brick element with curvature coordinates and (b) multiplicative decomposition of displacement gradient

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Fig. 7

Capped Drucker–Prager failure model: (a) capped drucker-prager yield surface and (b) capped drucker-prager return mapping process

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Fig. 8

Triaxial soil test apparatus

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Fig. 9

Deviator stress versus axial strain curves

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Fig. 10

Deviator stress versus mean effective stress at failure

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Fig. 11

Void ratio versus vertical stress obtained by 1D consolidation test

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Fig. 12

Stress–strain curve of triaxial test model (200 kPa confining pressure)

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Fig. 13

Pressure sinkage test model using capped Drucker–Prager model: (a) deformed shape of plate sinkage test model and (b) pressure-sinkage relationship and comparison with ABAQUS model

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Fig. 14

Soil bin test facility

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Fig. 15

Variation of void ratio in soil bin

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Fig. 16

Tire–soil interaction model using moving soil patch approach

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Fig. 17

Comparison of tire forces for 6 and 8 kN wheel loads with 230 kPa inflation pressure

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Fig. 18

Side view of tire–soil interaction simulation with moving soil patch approach: (a) 0.8 m long soil patch and (b) 1.25 m long soil patch

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Fig. 19

Effect of the moving soil patch size: (a) 0.8 m long soil patch and (b) 1.25 m long soil patch

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Fig. 20

CPU time comparison between complete soil and moving soil patch models

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Fig. 21

Soil sinkage for different wheel loads and tire inflation pressure

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Fig. 22

Longitudinal tire force (Fx) for different wheel loads and tire inflation pressure

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Fig. 23

Rolling resistance coefficient (Fx/Fz) for different wheel loads and tire inflation pressure

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Fig. 24

Lateral tire force (Fy) for different wheel loads and tire inflation pressure

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Fig. 25

Lateral tangential force coefficient (Fy/Fz) for different wheel loads and tire inflation pressure



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