Research Papers

Parallel Co-Simulation Method for Railway Vehicle-Track Dynamics

[+] Author and Article Information
Qing Wu, Yan Sun, Maksym Spiryagin, Colin Cole

Centre for Railway Engineering,
Central Queensland University,
Rockhampton QLD4701, Australia;
Australasian Centre for Rail Innovation,
Canberra ACT2608, Australia

Contributed by the Design Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF COMPUTATIONAL AND NONLINEAR DYNAMICS. Manuscript received October 22, 2017; final manuscript received January 29, 2018; published online February 26, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Xiaobo Yang.

J. Comput. Nonlinear Dynam 13(4), 041004 (Feb 26, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: CND-17-1467; doi: 10.1115/1.4039310 History: Received October 22, 2017; Revised January 29, 2018

This paper introduces a new parallel co-simulation method to study vehicle-track dynamic interactions. The new method uses the transmission control protocol/internet protocol (TCP/IP) to enable co-simulation between a detailed in-house track dynamics simulation package and a commercial vehicle system dynamics simulation package. The exchanged information are wheel-rail contact forces and rail kinematics. Then, the message passing interface (MPI) technique is used to enable the model to process track dynamics simulations and vehicle dynamics simulations in parallel. The parallel co-simulation technique has multiple advantages: (1) access to the advantages of both in-house and commercial simulation packages; (2) new model parts can be easily added in as new parallel processes; and (3) saving of computing time. The original track model used in this paper was significantly improved in terms of computing speed. The improved model is now more than ten times faster than the original model. Two simulations were conducted to model a locomotive negotiating a section of track with and without unsupported sleepers. The results show that the vertical rail deflections, wheel-rail contact forces and vehicle suspension forces are evidently larger when unsupported sleepers are present. The simulations have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed parallel co-simulation method for vehicle-track dynamic interaction studies.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Zhai, W. , Wang, K. , and Cai, C. , 2009, “ Fundamentals of Vehicle–Track Coupled Dynamics,” Veh. Syst. Dyn., 47(11), pp. 1349–1376. [CrossRef]
Dahlberg, T. , 2006, “ Track Issue,” Handbook of Railway Vehicle Dynamics, Iwnicki, S. , ed., Taylor & Francis, London, Chap. 9.
Tanabe, M. , Sogabe, M. , Wakui, H. , Matsumoto, M. , and Tanabe, Y. , 2016, “ Exact Time Integration for Dynamic Interaction of High-Speed Train and Railway Structure Including Derailment During an Earthquake,” ASME J. Comput. Nonlinear Dyn., 11(3), p. 031004. [CrossRef]
Zhai, W. , Xia, H. , Cai, C. , Gao, M. , Li, X. , Guo, X. , Zhang, N. , and Wang, K. , 2013, “ High-Speed Train–Track–Bridge Dynamic Interactions—Part I: Theoretical Model and Numerical Simulation,” Int. J. Rail Transp., 1(1–2), pp. 3–24. [CrossRef]
Zhai, W. , Wang, S. , Zhang, N. , Gao, M. , Xia, H. , Cai, C. , and Zhao, C. , 2013, “ High-Speed Train–Track–Bridge Dynamic Interactions—Part II: Experimental Validation and Engineering Application,” Int. J. Rail Transp., 1(1–2), pp. 25–41. [CrossRef]
Grassie, S. , Gregory, R. , Harrison, S. , and Johnson, K. , 1982, “ The Dynamic Response of Railway Track to High Frequency Vertical Excitation,” J. Mech. Eng. Sci., 24(2), pp. 77–90. [CrossRef]
Thompson, D. , and Jones, C. , 2000, “ A Review of the Modelling of Wheel/Rail Noise Generation,” J. Sound Vib., 231(3), pp. 519–536. [CrossRef]
Heckl, M. , 2002, “ Coupled Waves on a Periodically Supported Timoshenko Beam,” J. Sound Vib., 252(5), pp. 849–882. [CrossRef]
Zhai, W. , and Wang, K. , 2010, “ Lateral Hunting Stability of Railway Vehicles Running on Elastic Track Structures,” ASME J. Comput. Nonlinear Dyn., 5(4), p. 041009. [CrossRef]
Nielsen, J. , and Igelan, A. , 1995, “ Vertical Dynamic Interaction Between Train and Track—Influence of Wheel and Track Imperfections,” J. Sound Vib., 187(5), pp. 825–839. [CrossRef]
Sun, Y. , and Dhanasekar, M. , 2002, “ A Dynamic Model for the Vertical Interaction of the Rail Track and Wagon System,” Int. J. Solids Struct., 39(5), pp. 1337–1359. [CrossRef]
Baeza, L. , and Ouyang, H. , 2011, “ A Railway Track Dynamics Model Based on Modal Substructuring and a Cyclic Boundary Condition,” J. Sound Vib., 330(1), pp. 75–86. [CrossRef]
Yang, S. , 2009, “ Enhancement of the Finite-Element Method for the Analysis of Vertical Train–Track Interactions,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part F, 223(6), pp. 609–620. [CrossRef]
Zhang, J. , Gao, Q. , Tan, S. , and Zhong, W. , 2012, “ A Precise Integration Method for Solving Coupled Vehicle—Track Dynamics With Nonlinear Wheel—Rail Contact,” J. Sound Vib., 331(21), pp. 4763–4773. [CrossRef]
Martínez-Casas, J. , Giner-Navarro, J. , Baeza, L. , and Denia, F. , 2017, “ Improved Railway Wheelset-Track Interaction Model in the High-Frequency Domain,” J. Comput. Appl. Math., 309(1), pp. 642–653. [CrossRef]
Ferrara, R. , Leonardi, G. , and Jourdan, F. , 2013, “ A Contact-Area Model for Rail-Pads Connections in 2-D Simulations: Sensitivity Analysis of Train-Induced Vibrations,” Veh. Syst. Dyn., 51(9), pp. 1342–1362. [CrossRef]
Nilsson, C. , Jones, C. , Thompson, D. , and Ryue, J. , 2009, “ A Waveguide Finite Element and Boundary Element Approach to Calculating the Sound Radiated by Railway and Tram Rails,” J. Sound Vib., 321(3–5), pp. 813–836. [CrossRef]
Gómez, J. , Vadillo, E. , and Santamaría, J. , 2006, “ A Comprehensive Track Model for the Improvement of Corrugation Models,” J. Sound Vib., 293(3–5), pp. 522–534. [CrossRef]
Koro, K. , Abe, K. , Ishida, M. , and Suzuki, T. , 2004, “ Timoshenko Beam Finite Element for Vehicle-Track Vibration Analysis and Its Application to Jointed Railway Track,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part F, 218(2), pp. 159–172. [CrossRef]
Gry, L. , 1996, “ Dynamic Modelling of Railway Track Based on Wave Propagation,” J. Sound Vib., 195(3), pp. 477–505. [CrossRef]
Dong, R. , Sankar, S. , and Dukkipati, R. , 1994, “ A Finite Element Model of Railway Track and Its Application to the Wheel Flat Problem,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part F, 208(1), pp. 61–72. [CrossRef]
Knothe, K. , and Grassie, S. , 1993, “ Modelling of Railway Track and Vehicle/Track Interaction at High Frequencies,” Veh. Syst. Dyn., 22(3–4), pp. 209–262. [CrossRef]
Popp, K. , Kruse, H. , and Kaiser, I. , 1999, “ Vehicle-Track Dynamics in the Mid-Frequency Range,” Veh. Syst. Dyn., 31(5–6), pp. 423–464. [CrossRef]
Blanco, B. , 2017, “Railway Track Dynamic Modelling,” Licentiate thesis, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden. http://kth.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2%3A1096621&dswid=-8466
Meli, E. , and Pugi, L. , 2013, “ Preliminary Development, Simulation and Validation of a Weigh in Motion System for Railway Vehicles,” Meccanica, 48(10), pp. 2541–2565. [CrossRef]
Sugiyama, H. , and Suda, Y. , 2009, “ On the Contact Search Algorithms for Wheel/Rail Contact Problems,” ASME J. Comput. Nonlinear Dyn., 4(4), p. 041001. [CrossRef]
Sugiyama, H. , and Suda, Y. , 2008, “ Wheel/Rail Two-Point Contact Geometry With Back-of-Flange Contact,” ASME J. Comput. Nonlinear Dyn., 4(1), p. 011010. [CrossRef]
Piotrowski, J. , and Kik, W. , 2008, “ A Simplified Model of Wheel/Rail Contact Mechanics for Non-Hertzian Problems and Its Application in Rail Vehicle Dynamic Simulations,” Veh. Syst. Dyn., 46(1–2), pp. 27–48. [CrossRef]
Afshari, A. , and Shabana, A. , 2010, “ Directions of the Tangential Creep Forces in Railroad Vehicle Dynamics,” ASME J. Comput. Nonlinear Dyn., 5(2), p. 021006. [CrossRef]
Kalker, J. , 1991, “ Wheel-Rail Rolling Contact Theory,” Wear, 144(1–2), pp. 243–261. [CrossRef]
Kalker, J. , 1982, “ A Fast Algorithm for the Simplified Theory of Rolling Contact,” Veh. Syst. Dyn., 11(1), pp. 1–13. [CrossRef]
Polach, O. , 2005, “ Creep Forces in Simulations of Traction Vehicles Running on Adhesion Limit,” Wear, 258(7–8), pp. 992–1000. [CrossRef]
Ju, S. , 2015, “ Study of Train Derailments Caused by Damage to Suspension Systems,” ASME J. Comput. Nonlinear Dyn., 11(3), p. 031008. [CrossRef]
Pasquale, G. , Somà, A. , and Zampieri, N. , 2012, “ Design, Simulation, and Testing of Energy Harvesters With Magnetic Suspensions for the Generation of Electricity From Freight Train Vibrations,” ASME J. Comput. Nonlinear Dyn., 7(4), p. 041011. [CrossRef]
Wu, Q. , Cole, C. , Spiryagin, M. , and Sun, Y. Q. , 2014, “ A Review of Dynamics Modelling of Friction Wedge Suspensions,” Veh. Syst. Dyn., 52(11), pp. 1389–1415. [CrossRef]
Bruni, S. , Vinolas, J. , Berg, M. , Polach, O. , and Stichel, S. , 2011, “ Modelling of Suspension Components in a Rail Vehicle Dynamics Context,” Veh. Syst. Dyn., 49(7), pp. 1021–1072. [CrossRef]
Rodikov, A. , Pogorelov, D. , Mikheev, G. , Kovalev, R. , Lei, Q. , and Wang, Y. , 2016, “ Computer Simulation of Train-Track-Bridge Interaction,” Conference on Railway Excellence, Melbourne, Australia, May 16–18, pp. 1–7.
Li, Y. , Xu, X. , Zhou, Y. , Cai, C. , and Qin, J. , 2016, “ An Interactive Method for the Analysis of the Simulation of Vehicle–Bridge Coupling Vibration Using ANSYS and SIMPACK,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part F, epub.
Sun, Y. , Dhanasekar, M. , and Roach, D. , 2003, “ A Three-Dimensional Model for the Lateral and Vertical Dynamics of Wagon-Track Systems,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part F, 217(1), pp. 31–45. [CrossRef]
Spiryagin, M. , Wolfs, P. , Cole, C. , Spiryagin, V. , Sun, Y. Q. , and McSweeney, T. , 2016, Design and Simulation of Heavy Haul Locomotives and Trains, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. [CrossRef]
Spiryagin, M. , Simson, S. , Cole, C. , and Persson, I. , 2012, “ Co-Simulation of a Mechatronic System Using Gensys and Simulink,” Veh. Syst. Dyn., 50(3), pp. 495–507. [CrossRef]
Wu, Q. , Spiryagin, M. , Cole, C. , and Sun, Y. Q. , 2017, “ Introducing Wheel-Rail Adhesion Control Into Longitudinal Train Dynamics,” Int. J. Heavy Veh. Syst., accepted.
Burgelman, N. , Sichani, M. , Enblom, R. , Berg, M. , Li, Z. , and Dollevoet, R. , 2015, “ Influence of Wheel–Rail Contact Modelling on Vehicle Dynamic Simulation,” Veh. Syst. Dyn., 53(8), pp. 1190–1203. [CrossRef]
Spiryagin, M. , Wu, Q. , Duan, K. , Cole, K. , Sun, Y. , and Persson, I. , 2017, “ Implementation of a Wheel–Rail Temperature Model for Locomotive Traction Studies,” Int. J. Rail Transp., 5(1), pp. 1–15. [CrossRef]
D'Adamio, P. , Escalona, J. , Galardi, E. , Meli, E. , Pugi, L. , and Rindi, A. , 2016, “ Real Time Modelling of a Railway Multibody Vehicle: Application and Validation on a Scaled Railway Vehicle,” Third International Conference on Railway Technology: Research, Development and Maintenance, Sardinia, Italy, Apr. 5–8, Paper No. 259.
Negrut, D. , Serban, R. , Mazhar, H. , and Heyn, T. , 2014, “ Parallel Computing in Multibody System Dynamics: Why, When and How,” ASME J. Comput. Nonlinear Dyn., 9(4), p. 041007. [CrossRef]
Wu, Q. , Cole, C. , and Spiryagin, M. , 2016, “ Parallel Computing Enables Whole-Trip Train Dynamics Optimizations,” ASME J. Comput. Nonlinear Dyn., 11(4), p. 044503. [CrossRef]
Wu, Q. , Spiryagin, M. , and Cole, C. , 2017, “ Parallel Computing Scheme for Three-Dimensional Long Train System Dynamics,” ASME J. Comput. Nonlinear Dyn., 12(4), p. 044502. [CrossRef]
Wu, Q. , Spiryagin, M. , and Cole, C. , 2016, “ Longitudinal Train Dynamics: An Overview,” Veh. Syst. Dyn., 54(12), pp. 1688–1714. [CrossRef]
Spiryagin, M. , Wolfs, P. , Szanto, F. , and Cole, C. , 2015, “ Simplified and Advanced Modelling of Traction Control Systems of Heavy-Haul Locomotives,” Veh. Syst. Dyn., 53(5), pp. 672–691. [CrossRef]
Wu, Q. , and Cole, C. , 2015, “ Computing Schemes for Longitudinal Train Dynamics: Sequential, Parallel and Hybrid,” ASME J. Comput. Nonlinear Dyn., 10(6), p. 064502. [CrossRef]
Sun, Y. , Spiryagin, M. , and Cole, C. , 2017, “ Simulation of Wheel-Rail Dynamics Due to Track Ballast Voids,” 25th International Symposium on Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks, Rockhampton, Australia, Aug. 14–18, pp. 1–6.
Zhang, S. , Xiao, X. , Wen, Z. , and Jin, X. , 2008, “ Effect of Unsupported Sleepers on Wheel/Rail Normal Load,” Soil Dyn. Earthquake Eng., 28(8), pp. 662–673. [CrossRef]
Zakeri, J. , Fattahi, M. , and Ghanimoghadam, M. , 2015, “ Influence of Unsupported and Partially Supported Sleepers on Dynamic Responses of Train-Track Interaction,” J. Mech. Sci. Technol., 29(6), pp. 2289–2295. [CrossRef]
Lundqvist, A. , and Dahlberg, T. , 2005, “ Load Impact on Railway Track Due to Unsupported Sleepers,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part F, 219(2), pp. 67–77. [CrossRef]
Recuero, A. , Escalona, J. , and Shabana, A. , 2011, “ Finite-Element Analysis of Unsupported Sleepers Using Three-Dimensional Wheel–Rail Contact Formulation,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part K, 225(2), pp. 153–165.
Zhu, J. , Thompson, D. , and Jones, C. , 2011, “Effect Unsupported Sleepers Dynamic Behaviour a Railway Track,” Veh. Syst. Dyn., 49(9), pp. 1389–1408.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Longitudinal view of the track model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Cross-sectional view of the track model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Locomotive suspension: (a) primary suspension and (b) secondary suspension

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Wheel and rail profiles

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Co-simulation architecture

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Parallel co-simulation architecture

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Track model with an unsupported sleeper

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Vertical deflection of the rail

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Vertical wheel-rail contact force

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Vertical force of primary suspension



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In