Microelectronics packaging technology has evolved from through-hole and bulk configurations to surface-mount and small-profile configurations. Surface mount devices, such as flip chip packages, chip scale packages, and ball grid arrays, use solder bump interconnections between them and substrates/printed wiring boards. Solder bumps, which are hidden between the device and the substrate/board, are difficult to inspect. A solder bump inspection system was developed using laser ultrasound and interferometric techniques. This system has been successfully applied to detect solder joint/bump defects, including missing, misaligned, open, and cracked solder joints/bumps in flip chips, chip scale packages, and multilayer ceramic capacitors. This system uses a pulsed Nd:YAG laser to induce ultrasound in the electronic packages in the thermoelastic regime; it then measures the transient out-of-plane displacement response on the package surface using the interferometric technique. This paper presents a local temporal coherence (LTC) analysis of laser ultrasound signals and compares it to previous signal-processing methods, including error ratio and correlation coefficient methods. The results showed that LTC analysis increased measurement accuracy and sensitivity for inspecting solder bump defects in electronic packages. Laser ultrasound inspection results are also compared with X-ray and -mode scanning acoustic microscopy results. In particular, this paper discusses defect detection for flip chips and flip chips (“SiMAF;” Siemens AG) with lead-free solder bumps.
Detection of Solder Bump Defects in Electronic Packages Using Local Temporal Coherence Analysis of Laser Ultrasonic Signals
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Yang, J., and Ume, I. C. (February 18, 2009). "Detection of Solder Bump Defects in Electronic Packages Using Local Temporal Coherence Analysis of Laser Ultrasonic Signals." ASME. J. Electron. Packag. March 2009; 131(1): 011013. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.3068301
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