In this study, the effect of inclination on the thermal performance of a shell and tube latent heat storage system (LHSS) is investigated. Due to its practical applicability, a simultaneous charging and discharging (SCD) condition is considered. The SCD process for the LHSS involves the circulation of the hot fluid from one side and at the same time cold fluid from the other side. The inclination angles considered for this study are 0 deg (horizontal), 30 deg, 60 deg, and 90 deg (vertical). The effect of inclination on the temperature distribution at various locations of LHSS, melting behavior, energy stored, exergy efficiency, heat input, and recovery are presented. The experimental results indicate that the orientation of an LHSS has a great impact on the melting behavior and performance of LHSS. The maximum energy stored is obtained for the horizontal (θ = 0 deg) configuration and shows 27.42% higher value than the vertical. This study reveals that during the initial stage, higher melting rate is observed in horizontal configuration due to the efficient buoyancy-induced thermal transport. After attaining the steady-state condition, the energy storage is not significant, and the thermal transport is noted between the hot and cold heat transfer fluids.