Three injectors with different nozzle geometries were tested in a multicylinder diesel engine with a high-pressure common-rail injection system. Various injection pressures were tested along with exhaust gas recirculation to achieve low and soot emissions. The injectors used in the study included a six-hole nozzle, a ten-hole nozzle, and a six-hole convergent nozzle with a -factor of 3. All three injectors had the same flow numbers. All three injectors tested were effective in reducing and soot emissions at appropriate conditions. It was found that low temperature combustion can be achieved by using high levels of exhaust gas recirculation with late injection timings. High injection pressures significantly reduced soot emissions at conventional injection timings. The effect of injection pressure was not significant at retarded injection timings, i.e., 5 ATDC. The convergent nozzle was found to produce higher soot emissions compared with the straight-hole nozzle under the same injection conditions. Effects of the convergent nozzle on emissions and fuel consumption were not significant. The small nozzle size in the ten-hole injector can generate smaller fuel drops and lead to better atomization. The ten-hole injector appeared to have better air utilization and resulted in significant reductions in and soot emissions over a wide range of operating conditions.
Experimental Study on Effects of Nozzle Hole Geometry on Achieving Low Diesel Engine Emissions
Karra, P. K., and Kong, S. (November 2, 2009). "Experimental Study on Effects of Nozzle Hole Geometry on Achieving Low Diesel Engine Emissions." ASME. J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power. February 2010; 132(2): 022802. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.3124791
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