Abstract

Cooled spray (CS) technology passively reduces particulate matter (PM) emissions from diesel engines compared to non-CS-equipped diesel engines. CS inserts are mounted near the injector nozzle and control mixing so that the fuel and air can premix while limiting combustion near fuel-rich zones, thereby reducing the formation of particulate matter. CS components contain no moving parts and could be installed as a retrofit or built into new engines. However, CS technology is early in its development, and further investigations are needed to understand the overall performance implications and practicality of the technology. In this paper, we investigate several important aspects of CS, providing a clearer picture of some challenges and potential benefits of CS. Two alignment techniques are used to characterize measurement ease and bias, namely, an optical alignment and spray-plug impact alignment. While the optical technique facilitates alignment more easily, a bias was measured between the optical and spray-plug techniques, suggesting the optical technique may have insufficient accuracy without additional corrections. We also evaluate the engine performance of a well-aligned and poorly aligned CS insert, compared to the baseline configuration. The poorly aligned insert shows slower combustion than the baseline and mixed overall performance. However, the well-aligned insert shows faster combustion than the baseline and PM emission reduction at most operating conditions, with some conditions showing PM reduction up to 80%. The results of this paper highlight the alignment challenges of CS technology as well as the potential PM reduction benefit of the technology.

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