A detailed heat transfer numerical study of a three-dimensional impinging jet on a roughened isothermal surface is presented and is investigated from flow physics vantage point under the influence of different parameters. The effects of the Reynolds number, roughness location, and roughness dimension on the flow physics and heat transfer parameters are studied. Additionally, the relations between average heat transfer coefficient (AHTC) and flow physics including pressure, wall shear and flow vortices with thermodynamic nonequilibrium are offered. This paper studies the effect of varying both location and dimension of the roughness element which took the shape of square cross-sectional continuous ribs to deliver a favorable trade-off between total pressure loss and heat transfer rate. The roughness element was tested for three different radial locations (R/D) = 1, 1.5, and 2 and at each location its height (i.e., width) (e) was changed from 0.25 to 1 mm in incremental steps of 0.25. The study used a jet angle (α) of 90 deg, jet-to-target distance (H/D = 6), and Re ranges from 10,000 to 50,000, where H is the vertical distance between the target plate and jet exit. The results show that the AHTC can be significantly affected by changing the geometry and dimensions of the roughness element. This variation can be either an augmentation of, or decrease in, the (HTC) when compared with the baseline case. An enhancement of 12.9% in the AHTC was achieved by using optimal location and dimensions of the roughness element at specific Reynolds number. However, a diminution between 10% and 30% in (AHTC) was attained by the use of rib height e = 1 mm at Re = 50k. The variation of both rib location and height showed better contribution in increasing heat transfer for low-range Reynolds numbers.